SGM Herbert A. Friedman (Ret.)
Note: Some material from this site was depicted with the authors permission on the Vietnam Historical website The Remnants,for a documentary film on the legacy of the Vietnam War. The Kansas University Press requested images from this article for their book: Let the Dogs Bark: The Psychological War in Vietnam, 1960-1968.The Oxford University Press requested use of images from this article for their book: Everyman in Vietnam.
Who were the Viet Cong? The 1966 Department of the Army Pamphlet 360-518, Know your Enemy - the Viet Cong, discusses the enemy in depth. Some of the comments are:
Literally translated, the phrase Viet Cong means Vietnamese Communist, and those who are Viet Cong employ the whole Communist arsenal of deceit and violence. A Viet Cong is a man, woman, or child a tough fighter, with words or weapons, for what he is taught to call the "liberation" of South Vietnam-the Republic of Vietnam. Viet Cong also applies to the military and civilian components of the "Front" (the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam. To its deluded followers the Front is the government they serve, but to the vast majority of South Vietnamese it is an instrument of terror and oppression manipulated by the Communists of North Vietnam.
The Communist regime in Hanoi directs, controls, and supplies the entire Viet Cong political and military effort to conquer the Republic of Vietnam. All control, political and military, comes ultimately from the Central Committee of North Vietnams Lao Dong (Communist) Party, which maps out broad strategy.
In South Vietnam itself, the Communists have created a show of legitimacy through the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam. The Fronts national central committee sets policy and also is responsible for planning and organization building.
The next level in the Communist-dominated Front hierarchy consists of the 3 interzone headquarters, which determine agitprop (persuasion and propaganda) policy guidance and which are responsible for political indoctrination and training.
Within the last 6 years the Viet Congs Binh Van program, "proselyting," as they call it-has become a major program. A favored practice is the use of girls and women, speaking as sisters or mothers, to serenade small garrisons, calling to them to save their precious lives for their families sake, and imploring them to have mercy on civilians.
Ex-PSYOP Trooper Mervyn Edwin Roberts III, PhD, says in: Let the Dogs Bark: The Psychological War in Vietnam, 1960-1968, forthcoming from the University Press of Kansas, 2018:
The Vietnamese Communist Party, Viet Nam Cong-san Dang, was formed in October 1930. The term Viet Cong appeared in Saigon newspapers beginning in 1956 as a contraction of Viet Nam Cong-san. By using this, South Vietnamese and American officials attempted to delegitimize the original movement by identifying it clearly as a communist front.
In contrast to the phrase National Liberation Front (NLF), Viet Cong is more descriptive of the organization. In 1975, the correctness of the term became manifest when the North Vietnamese won the war and immediately changed the countrys name to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Without delay they disbanded the National Liberation Front, arresting some of the members who had been duped into joining. Members of the Front sacrificed their lives, liberty and honor for an organization that acted simply as camouflage. As Truong Nhu Tang, a founding member of the Front and Minister of Justice for the Provisional Revolutionary Government, later wrote, his betrayed comrades believed they were sacrificing themselves for the humane liberation of their people. Troung himself fled Vietnam when the truth became clear. Hence, despite its propaganda origins, the term Viet Cong was more descriptive of what the force was.
North Vietnam Draft Notice
Although this draft notice is for the North Vietnam Army and not for the Viet Cong, these soldiers would soon be walking south to take part in their war of liberation along with their comrades from the South, the Viet Cong. The document says:
Administration committee No. 12/Army
Democratic Republic of Viet Nam
Independence - Freedom - Happiness
14 July 1971
CHAIRMAN OF THE HANOI ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE
- According to 110/SL (31/5/1958) of regional authority.
- According to Law National duty introduced in Order number 11/SL (28/4/1960) and Additional and Upgraded Laws of National duty by Order 45/LCT (224/2/1965) of President of Democratic Republic of Viet Nam.
-According to Order number 47/LCT (5/51965) or President of Democratic Republic of Viet Nam introducing regional declaration of duty.
1. Mr. Tran Trung Thanh, citizen of the Designing Unit of Industry Department is ordered to serve in the army.
2. At exactly 6:00 on 17 July 1971, you must present yourself at 65 Ham Long.
3. Mr. Tran Trung Thanh has the responsibility to carry out this decision.
On behalf of Hanoi Administrative Committee
The National Liberation Front (NLF) was a constant subject of debate during the Vietnam War. The Americans and the Government of Vietnam (GVN) considered it a front used by Hanoi to disguise the machinations of the Communist regime of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRVN) in the insurrection against the government of the South. They claimed that the quality and the dissemination of the propaganda were such that it could not be produced in the field under combat conditions. They believed that the expertise, clarity and concept of the propaganda proved that Hanoi was the origin of the leaflets.
The DRVN rejected the claims and said that the NLF was proof that the revolution in the south was agrarian in nature and made up of people of every political and religious affiliation. The NLF, they said, consisted of simple farmers, tradesmen, workers and students. The fight was an old-fashioned war of liberation against the American-backed fascist regime of Saigon.
The truth is somewhere in the middle. The NLF was surely controlled and dominated by the north, but there can be no doubt that there were dedicated and motivated soldiers and civilians that fought for what they believed to be their nation's liberation.
A Very Early Vietnam Propaganda Leaflet
As the Vietnam War went on for a decade, the Viet Cong leaflets got more intricate, political, and colorful and the messages got far more technical with references to American politicians and peace marches at home. However, early in the war, all of the VC leaflets were simple hand-written text with very short messages. The above leaflet is one of ten such leaflets brought back by a Special Forces Captain who was part of an A team in 1964.
Colonel Frank L. Goldstein says in Psychological Operations, Air University Press, Maxwell AFB, AL, 1996, "The importance and priority that the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong put on psychological operations are well known, as in the slogans political activities are more important than military activities, and fighting is less importance than propaganda. General Vo Nguyen Giap in his People's War, People's Army quotes as one of Ho Chi Minh's cardinal principals of political warfare, Do not attempt to overthrow the enemy but try to win him over and make use of him.
Goldstein mentions three Viet Cong PSYOP programs. Dan van was the VC effort to develop support in the areas that it controlled while dich van was the effort to develop support in GVN-controlled areas. Binh van was the recruiting program among the Army of the Republic of Vietnam troops and GVN civilian servants. Destruction of South Vietnam's armed forces was an overriding priority for the VC; violence, armed attacks, assassinations, kidnappings, terrorist acts, and binh van were employed. The top objective of binh van was to induce unit desertions, preferably accompanied by an act of sabotage. The next highest objective was to induce individual military desertion or civilian defection, preferably accompanied by an act of destruction or a theft of key documents. Next was to induce major and significant opposition within the military or civil service, either covertly or overtly.
The dich van program is mentioned in more depth in
: Unheralded Victory - The Defeat of the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese Army. 1961-1973, Mark W. Woodruff, Vandamere Press, Viet Nam , 1999. He says: Arlington, VA.
The Communists developed a highly complex plan to dominate
one day Crucial to their plan was a psychological warfare program they called dich van (action against the enemy). Specifically, dich van referred to non-military programs aimed at the civilian populations of their South Vietnamese and American enemies The American people were not their enemy; instead they said their enemies were the soldiers that fought the war and the politicians who sent them there. By claiming this, the Communists sought to drive a wedge between those doing the fighting and those back home. South Vietnam
Woodruff points out that there was no attempt by the American government to create a war psychology in the United States, no antagonizing China or the Soviet Union with Chinese intervention in Korea still within memory, and no talk of unification allowed by the South while the North trumpeted it daily. The dich van program went relatively unopposed in the
. It sought to convince the American people that the war was immoral and unwinnible. It presented an idolized picture of a highly motivated, incorruptible, nationalist United States North Vietnamwhile at the same time attacking South Vietnamand the as immoral, racist, thieves and murderers. United States
The Communists lied about their troops in
Laosand Cambodiaat the same time they demanded that respect the neutrality of those nations. The North attacked cities in the South but called American bombing of the North immoral, and help from allies illegitimate. What may be most ironic is that after their victory, their lies came back to haunt the Communists. They had said over and over that the war was fought by peasants and farmers in the South and America had no part in the war. Hollywood celebrities glorified the poor barefoot Viet Cong fighting the giant U.S. military, never mentioning the thousands of North Vietnamese regulars in the South. After 1975, when the North wanted the credit they believed they deserved for managing and winning the 10-year war, they had to go back and eliminate and erase 10 years of lies that claimed they had never been in the South and the war had been fought by peasants and farmers. North Vietnam
Viet Cong Oath of Honor
The NLF produced thousands of propaganda leaflets during the long civil war. The Communists aimed some at the Americans, some at the Army of Vietnam (ARVN) or government officials, and some against the other allied nations that joined the fight to protect the sovereignty of the Government of Vietnam. In this article, we will illustrate and discuss those leaflets aimed specifically at Americans. In many case the leaflets will be of high quality and bear the symbol of the NLF. In other cases, they will be crude, on poor quality paper, typewritten or handwritten.
The previously classified Confidential MACV Combined Intelligence Center VC Propaganda Factbook dated 29 March 1969 says in part:
Although the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NFLSVN) was not organized until December 1960, the propaganda phase of the general offensive began in May 1959 when the Lao Dong Central Committee in Hanoi declared that the time had come to begin the struggle against the Government of Vietnam.
VC propaganda efforts are largely channeled through the NFLSVN front associations with face-to-face contact, rather than through mass media Sections which have functions directly related to propaganda activities are the Propaganda and Training Section (PTS), The Military Proselyting Section (MPS), The Civilian Proselyting Section (CPS) and the the Political Struggle Section (PSS).
A widely used propaganda vehicle is the leaflet. A traditional tool of insurgents, the leaflet has been highly developed by the Communists. It appears in Vietnam in Vietnamese, English, Korean, and Chinese. The typical leaflet of two or four pages contains a text followed by one or more slogans. Pictures are often used. Most leaflets are directed at Allied fighting men, in the hope of eroding their fighting spirit, inducing them to desert, or causing them to press for an end to the war.
A brief history of the Vietnam War is necessary to show the reason that the NLF produced so many leaflets attacking the United States. During WWII, The League for the Independence of Vietnam, (Viet Minh) was organized as a nationalistic party seeking Vietnamese independence from France. After the victory by the Allies and the defeat of the occupying Japanese forces, Ho Chi Minh, the Viet Minh leader declared Vietnam's independence.
The French did not recognize the independence of Vietnam and tried to regain control over their old colony. The war between the French and the Viet Minh was fought from 1946 until 1954, when the French were defeated at Dien Bien Phu by Communist forces under the direction of General Vo Nguyen Giap. A cease-fire was negotiated in Geneva in 1954 and the warring forces were separated with the French controlling that portion of Vietnam below the 17th parallel and the Viet Minh in power of the territory north of the 17th parallel. A demilitarized zone would keep them apart and see that no more blood was shed. There was then a great movement of people as thousands of Catholics moved south, nationalists, and Communists moved north.
Ngo Dinh Diem
Ho Chi Minh
Ngo Dinh Diem, a staunch anti-Communist, became the President of the GVN. Ho Chi Minh was the leader of the DRVN. Free elections were planned for 1956 under the supervision of an International Control Committee to unify North and South Vietnam under a single elected government. There seems little doubt that Ho Chi Minh would win this election since he was a popular leader who had helped to throw the Japanese out of his country. He was admired by the people, called "Uncle Ho," and was even a friend of the American Office of Strategic Services (OSS) who had helped to arm and train his fighters. However, President Dwight D. Eisenhower supported the creation of a counter-revolutionary alternative south of the seventeenth parallel. He was not going to allow the Communists to take southern Vietnam without a fight. President Diem, facing sure defeat, refused in 1956 to hold the scheduled elections.
Diem could justify his decision by saying that the GVN was democratic, made up of many different parties that would split the vote. The North, under Ho Chi Minh, was a dictatorship. The votes would be along party lines as directed by the party leadership. The Communists would get the usual 99.5 votes they get in all of their so-called "elections." To hold a free election was to give away the nation.The United States, now operating under the "Domino Theory," and fearful of a Communist takeover of all of Southeast Asia, supported him. In late 1957, with American aid, Diem counterattacked his critics. He used the help of the American Central Intelligence Agency to identify those who sought to bring his government down and arrested thousands. In 1959, Diem passed a series of acts known as Law 10/59 that allowed the government to hold someone in jail without formal charges if they were suspected of being a member of the Communist Party.
A Viet Cong Anti-election Leaflet
The hand drawn Viet Cong leaflet was used during one of the elections early in the war. The image shows a handshake between the South Vietnam government and the United States. Tanks and artillery are at the top of the picture while the Vietnamese people are shown behind a fence at the bottom, perhaps representing the Strategic hamlets. The words on the boxes around the crowd are:
Voting Boxes for President and Vice-President
The text at the bottom is:
Like the bombs of the American pirates, the American-puppet Presidential/Vice Presidential farce is aimed at increasing their aggression against our country and their massacres of our people
From 1956-1960, the Communist Party of Vietnam tried to reunify the country through political means. They tried unsuccessfully to cause Diem's collapse by exerting tremendous internal political pressure. It gradually became clear to the North that the country could only be reunified by force of arms. This led directly the North Vietnamese decision to unify South through military force rather than by political means. Diems success against their movement in the south convinced them that more violent tactics were required. In January 1959, the Communist Party approved the use of revolutionary violence to overthrow Ngo Dinh Diem's government.
President Diem with United States President Eisenhower
The U.S. government provided economic and military assistance to the Diem regime. Meanwhile, Diem became increasingly unpopular with the people of South Vietnam. He replaced elected village councils with Saigon-appointed administrators. He also aroused the ire of the Buddhists by selecting his fellow Roman Catholics (most of whom had moved to South Vietnam from the North) for top government positions.
The Viet Minh soldiers who were trained and armed in the North now started a Guerrilla war against the national government of the south. The Americans gave the guerrillas a new name, "Viet Cong." This was a derogatory and slang term meaning Vietnamese Communist. Curiously, the name became so popular and descriptive that in later years we find officials in
using the tern Viet Cong in many of their speeches. The original Viet Cong were mostly local people who were trained and motivated by the Communists, or Southern Vietnamese who had gone north for training and education and later returned to their homes to lead the new revolution. They were broken into a number of different forces: Hanoi
Viet Cong Child Soldiers
With all the talk about liberty and equality the Viet Cong seldom mentioned that when things got hard and manpower was difficult to come by they would draft young children as guerrillas. These boys were enticed with promises of adventure and hundreds of such children were killed in battle. They are members of the Dong Rai Regiment (K-3). In 1968, the South Vietnamese held more than 1000 Communist guerrilla prisoners between the ages of 11 and 17.
Main Force Units - full time troops from all over
organized in 2,000-man regiments. These troops were based in the mountains or in remote stretches along Vietnam 's borders. They were well trained, well armed and highly motivated. Vietnam
Regional Force Units - Usually recruited from their local province into 500-man battalions. They were less well trained and armed and might be called a militia of the Viet Cong.
Local Force Units - Recruited from the same village into small 10 or 12-man units. They were part-time soldiers who might farm or work at a regular job by day. They were often used as guides when the larger units moved into their areas for an attack.
Viet Cong Infrastructure (VCI) These were the political officers, administrators, tax collectors and other Communists who basically organized and kept the Viet Cong troops supplied with food, weapons and intelligence. These were the true believers.
Viet Cong Guerrilla Paints Anti-American Graffiti
Johnson's dollars are the blood and tears of American soldiers
They were the military branch of the National Liberation Front (NLF), controlled by the Central Office for South Vietnam (COSVN), which was located near the Cambodian border. For arms, ammunition and special equipment, the Vietcong depended on war materials brought down the Ho Chi Minh trail by trucks, porters and even bicycles. They met their other needs within South Vietnam by confiscation of rice, forced sale of bonds to farmers, etc. The main force Vietcong units were uniformed, full-time soldiers. They had the ability to launch large-scale offensives over a wide area. Regional forces were also full-time, but operated only within their own districts. When necessary, the small regional units could combine to make up battalions and regiments. If the enemy pressure became too great, they simply separated into their individual units and cells and returned to their jungle hideaways and caves. They went south to their old childhood areas and began a campaign of assassination, sabotage, and propaganda.
Diem asked for more American money, military advisers, and war materiel to build up his army. The Americans complied. U.S. President John F. Kennedy sent the first of the troops after the DRVN unified the South Vietnamese communist insurgents in an organization called the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam on 20 December 1960. The front had long and historic roots in Vietnam. It brought together Communists and non-Communists in an umbrella organization. Membership was open to anyone who opposed Ngo Dinh Diem. However, as always happens in any Communist-inspired organization, the moderate parties were soon dismissed and within a short time the NLF became exclusively communist.
- Elements of the 173d Airborne Brigade arrive in Vietnam, May 1965.
The number of American servicemen gradually rose from 900 in 1960 to 540,000 under President Lyndon B. Johnson in the last years of the war. By this time Richard M. Nixon was President and Nguyen Van Thieu led the GVN. Nixon instituted a program of "Vietnamization." The South Vietnamese would gradually assume all military responsibilities for their defense while being supplied with U.S. arms, equipment, air support, and economic aid. The Communists believed that it was the financial, manpower, and materiel help of the Americans that prolonged the war. That is the reason that they regularly attacked the Americans with their propaganda leaflets, both at home and abroad.
War protest Washington DC, Nov 15, 1969
National Guard Soldiers before the shooting at Kent State in Ohio
On the American home front there was much animosity toward the war. TV viewers saw young American servicemen killed and placed in body bags on their nightly TV news. There were not enough volunteers to continue to fight a protracted war, so the U.S. Government instituted a draft. This turned many professors and students against the war and the Johnson administration. There was a riot in Chicago during the 1968 Democratic National Convention. There were marches by black leaders who believed that their people were being led to the slaughter in Southeast Asia. At Kent State in Ohio, four students were killed by National Guardsmen who were called out to preserve order on campus after days of anti-Nixon protest. Students at Jackson State in Mississippi were also shot and killed. A mother was heard to cry, "they are killing our babies in Vietnam and in our own backyard." All of this was grist for the Communist propaganda mill. Leaflets were churned out by the thousands showing the riots, the student unrest, and calling for American blacks to quit the war and go home.
Major Alan Byrne (left) Accepts Plaque from Lieutenant Colonel Robert Laabs, Chief, PSYOP Development Center
4th PSYOP Group Vietnam 1968
Because of the anti-war movement in American universities there was a belief among some investigators that the students and faculties were actually helping the enemy. I spoke to former Captain Alan Byrne who was the Chief of the Audience Analysis Section, Psychological Development Center, 4th PSYOP Group from December 1967 to October 1968, and the Group's Adjutant from October to December 1968. He told me:
One of our missions was to evaluate all anti-American leaflets. In doing so, we found that for the most part they were very poorly written, their message was often times poorly translated, and they contained numerous printing errors. One of the most famous ones being: US HOOPS GO HOME! This was during the period December 1967 to March 1968. Then all of a sudden, they miraculously improved. I reported this rather sudden significant change up the line to our Civilian bosses, and sometime months later we got word back that the FBI had checked into it. The information we received back verbally was that certain elements at the University of California, Berkeley, were writing and printing leaflets for North Vietnam. Too many years have passed for me to be certain on this, but I have a vague recollection that it may have been traced back to them by a water mark on the leaflets. It was additionally suspected several others of the ultra-liberal California schools may have also been involved.
Attention all Military Personnel
Perhaps one of the reasons that Berkeley was suspected of traitorous activities. This leaflet was prepared by the Berkeley Vietnam Day Oppose the War Committee in November 1965. According to the Associated Press, the leaflet was found by American troops in Vietnam.
I think the FBI might have believed there was a Berkeley connection. That university was a hotbed of liberalism and I could see why it might be suspected as a sponsor of Communist propaganda. In fact, I suspect any old hippie reading this today would be proud that his school fought against the war. However, there were enough fellow-travelers in the United States and the United Kingdom, and members of the American Communist Party, not to mention all the U.S. experts in China and Russia that I just don't see the need to go to Berkeley to get a paragraph written. I also doubt the ability of those left-wing college kids to keep a secret. It is a nice rumor though, and I can understand why it would sound acceptable at the time when kids were marching in the streets with red banners.
Mother and Daughter
Another Berkeley Vietnam Day leaflet depicted a Vietnamese mother and child who had been napalmed. It was a truly gory image. Some of the text on the back is:
If you met the man whose wife and child you see on the other side of this leaflet, roasted to death by American napalm bombs, he would want you to explain why they died Would you say that you had no intention of killing his wife and child?...There are American families whose sons have died in Vietnam. In the year to come there will be many more. Can you tell these families in your own words why their families must die? If you cant, then how can you do anything but oppose this war?
Other Berkeley anti-war leaflets include an International Day of Protest, a To the Park torch light parade, a Picket the Marines illustrated piece, and a Peoples Park Negotiating Committee memorandum.
I asked the now-retired Colonel about the Viet Cong leaflets and his duties in Vietnam. He said:
We worked out of about 20 Quonset huts and one or two stone buildings, on a compound bordering on the rail yards, in Saigon. Enemy leaflets came in from our four PSYOP Battalions in the Corps areas. We also received them from many and varied different field units and the United States Agency for International Development (USAIDS). On the average, we got from a couple to a handful a week. We wrote reports on them using an in-house form to make sure all points were covered (date, location, unit(s) targeted and originated from, specific or general theme, quality of printing and message. We evaluated the overall content as to whether we thought it was or could be very, somewhat, or not at all, effective. We then sent everything to USAIDS, who was overall responsible for all of PSYOP in Republic of Vietnam; to Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV) and United States Army Vietnam (USARV) Offices of the G-2 (Intelligence), and a copy back to the sending unit.
Do we know exactly what the demands of the NLF were? We do. They published them as a manifesto for all to read.
Program of the National Liberation Front of South Viet-Nam
I. Overthrow the camouflaged colonial regime of the American imperialists and the dictatorial power of Ngo Dinh Diem, servant of the Americans, and institute a government of national democratic union. The present South Vietnamese regime is a camouflaged colonial regime dominated by the Yankees, and the South Vietnamese government is a servile government, implementing faithfully all the policies of the American imperialists. Therefore, this regime must be overthrown and a government of national and democratic union put in its place composed of representatives of all social classes, of all nationalities, of various political parties, of all religions; patriotic, eminent citizens must take over for the people the control of economic, political, social, and cultural interests and thus bring about independence, democracy, well- being, peace, neutrality, and efforts toward the peaceful unification of the country.
II. Institute a largely liberal and democratic regime.
1. Abolish the present constitution of the dictatorial powers of Ngo Dinh Diem, servant of the Americans. Elect a new National Assembly through universal suffrage.
2. Implement essential democratic liberties: freedom of opinion, of press, of movement, of trade unionism; freedom of religion without any discrimination; and the right of all patriotic organizations of whatever political tendency to carry on normal activities.
3. Proclaim a general amnesty for all political prisoners and the dissolution of concentration camps of all sorts; abolish fascist law 19/59 and all the other antidemocratic laws; authorize the return to the country of all persons persecuted by the American-Diem regime who are now refugees abroad.
4. Interdict all illegal arrests and detentions; prohibit torture; and punish all the Diem bullies who have not repented and who have committed crimes against the people.
III. Establish an independent and sovereign economy, and improve the living conditions of the people.
1. Suppress the monopolies imposed by the American imperialists and their servants; establish an independent and sovereign economy and finances in accordance with the national interest; confiscate to the profit of the nation the properties of the American imperialists and their servants.
2. Support the national bourgeoisie in the reconstruction and development of crafts and industry; provide active protection for national products through the suppression of production taxes and the limitation or prohibition of imports that the national economy is capable of producing; reduce custom fees on raw materials and machines.
3. Revitalize agriculture; modernize production, fishing, and cattle raising; help the farmers in putting to the plow unused land and in developing production; protect the crops and guarantee their disposal.
4. Encourage and reinforce economic relations between the city and country, the plain and the mountain regions; develop commercial exchanges with foreign countries, regardless of their political regime, on the basis of equality and mutual interests.
5. Institute a just and rational system of taxation; eliminate harassing penalties.
6. Implement the labor code: prohibition of discharges, of penalties, of ill-treatment of wage earners; improvement of the living conditions of workers and civil servants; imposition of wage scales and protective measures for young apprentices.
7. Organize social welfare: find work for jobless persons; assume the support and protection of orphans, old people, invalids; come to the help of the victims of the Americans and Diemists; organize help for areas hit by bad crops, fires, or natural calamities.
8. Come to the help of displaced persons desiring to return to their native areas and to those who wish to remain permanently in the South; improve their working and living conditions.
9. Prohibit expulsions, spoliation, and compulsory concentration of the population; guarantee job security for the urban and rural working populations.
Vietnam Rice Farmers
IV. Reduce land rent; implement agrarian reform with the aim of providing land to the tillers.
1. Reduce land rent; guarantee to the farmers the right to till the soil; guarantee the property right of accession to fallow lands to those who have cultivated them; guarantee property rights to those farmers who have already received land.
2. Dissolve 'prosperity zones' and put an end to recruitment for the camps that are called 'agricultural development centers.' Allow those compatriots who already have been forced into 'prosperity zones, and 'agricultural development centers' to return freely to their own lands.
3. Confiscate the land owned by American imperialists and their servants, and distribute it to poor peasants without any land or with insufficient land; redistribute the communal lands on a just and rational basis.
4. By negotiation and based on fair prices, repurchase for distribution to landless peasant or peasants with insufficient land those surplus lands that the owners of large estates will be made to relinquish if their domain exceeds a certain limit, to be determined in accordance with regional particularities. The farmers who benefit from such land and distribution will both be compelled to make any payment or to submit to any other conditions.
School Children in Vietnam
V. Develop a national and democratic culture and education.
1. Combat all forms of culture and education enslaved to Yankee fashions; develop a culture and education that is national, progressive, and at the service of the Fatherland and people.
2. Liquidate illiteracy; increase the number of schools in the fields of general education as well as in those of technical and professional education, in advanced study as well as in other fields; adopt Vietnamese as the vernacular language; reduce the expenses of education and exempt from payment students who are without means; resume the examination system.
3. Promote science and technology and the national letters and arts; encourage and support the intellectuals and artists so as to permit them to develop their talents in the service of national reconstruction.
4. Watch over public health; develop sports and physical education.
Viet Cong on Patrol
VI. Create a national army devoted to the defense of the Fatherland and the people.
1. Establish a national army devoted to the defense of the Fatherland and the people; abolish the system of American military advisers.
2. Abolish the draft system, improve the living conditions of the simple soldiers and guarantee their political rights; put an end to ill- treatment of the military; pay particular attention to the dependents of soldiers without means.
3. Reward officers and soldiers having participated in the struggle against the domination by the Americans and their servants; adopt a policy of clemency toward the former collaborators of the Americans and Diemists guilty of crimes against the people but who have finally repented and are ready to serve the people.
4. Abolish all foreign military bases established on the territory of Viet-Nam.
VII. Guarantee equality between the various minorities and between the two sexes; protect the legitimate interest of foreign citizens established in Viet Nam and of Vietnamese citizens residing abroad.
1. Implement the right to autonomy of the national minorities: Found autonomous zones in the areas with a minority population, those zones to be an integral part of the Vietnamese nation. Guarantee equality between the various nationalities: each nationality has the right to use and develop its language and writing system, to maintain or to modify freely its mores and customs; abolish the policy of the Americans and Diemists of racial discrimination and forced assimilation. Create conditions permitting the national minorities to reach the general level of progress of the population: development of their economy and culture; formation of cadres of minority nationalities.
2. Establish equality between the two sexes; women shall have equal rights with men from all viewpoints (political, economic, cultural, social, etc.).
3. Protect the legitimate interest of foreign citizens established in Viet Nam.
4. Defend and take care of the interest of Vietnamese citizens residing abroad.
China's Mao Tse Tung meets with Ho Chi Minh
VIII. Promote a foreign policy of peace and neutrality.
1. Cancel all unequal treaties that infringe upon the sovereignty of the people and that were concluded with other countries by the servants of the Americans.
2. Establish diplomatic relations with all countries, regardless of their political regime, in accordance with the principles of peaceful coexistence adopted at the Bandung Conference.
3. Develop close solidarity with peace-loving nations and neutral countries; develop free relations with the nations of Southeast Asia, in particular with Cambodia and Laos.
4. Stay out of any military bloc; refuse any military alliance with another country.
5. Accept economic aid from any country willing to help us without attaching any conditions to such help.
IX. Re-establish normal relations between the two zones, and prepare for the peaceful reunification of the country.
The peaceful reunification of the country constitutes the dearest desire of all our compatriots throughout the country. The National Liberation Front of South Viet-Nam advocates the peaceful reunification by stages based on negotiations and through the seeking of ways and means in conformity with the interest of the Vietnamese nation.
While awaiting this reunification, the governments of the two zones will, based on negotiations, promise to banish all separatist and warmongering propaganda and not to use force to settle differences between the zones. Commercial and cultural exchanges between the two zones will be implemented the inhabitants of the two zones will be free to move about throughout the country as their family and business interests indicate. The freedom of postal exchanges will be guaranteed.
X. Struggle against all aggressive war, actively defends universal peace.
1. Struggle against all aggressive war and against all forms of imperialist domination; support the national emancipation movements of the various peoples.
2. Banish all warmongering propaganda; demand general disarmament and the prohibition of nuclear weapons; and advocate the utilization of atomic energy for peaceful purposes.
3. Support all movements of struggle for peace, democracy, and social progress throughout the world; contribute actively to the defense of peace in Southeast Asia and in the world.
With all this print propaganda by the NFL, one would think it was a large organization. That is not what American intelligence discovered. In the book Slow Burn The Rise and Fall of American Intelligence in Vietnam, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1990, former CIA Chief of Military Region Three in Vietnam Orrin DeForest discusses the NFL after interviewing thousands of prisoners and building immense files. He says in part:
In June 1969, the NFL announced the establishment of the Provisional Revolutionary Government But what we were discovering was that the NFL itself, let alone its new creation were simply a skeleton organization. We would identify committees that apparently duplicated the Communist Party committees but whereas the Party Committee might have eight or ten or even fifteen people, the NFL Committee would have a chief and perhaps one other man The National Liberation Front was a paper organization, a magicians conjuring trick. It was total baloney. We would interview 25 or 30 cadres from a district and each of them would tell us the same thing. The NFL? It was a laugh.
The Republic of Vietnam certainly knew it was all propaganda. In January 1968 the Prime Minister issued a directive in the Chinh Luan newspaper that only certain words could be used when describing the Communists, their government and organizations. It was an attempt to delegitimize them all. In other civil wars and guerrilla uprisings the insurgents had been called terrorists, criminals and gangs. These are the terms the Vietnamese were ordered to say in regard to the Communist enemy and their allies:
Do not use the terms Viet Cong or NLF. Instead use:
The North Vietnamese Communists and their supporting forces or their auxiliary units.
Communist North Vietnam and their auxiliary forces in the South.
The North Vietnamese Communists and their front organizations in the South.
The North Vietnamese Communists with the Communist dominated organizations or groups.
The aggressors from Communist North Vietnam; the Communist aggressors.
Do not use the name The North Vietnamese Government but say instead:
North Vietnamese authorities; Hanoi regime; and North Vietnams Communist regime.
The Viet Cong had their own rules and terms to be used against the Americans. One captured Viet Cong document was addressed to Section B.V.U2. It said in part, edited for brevity:
We send you a list of slogans and propaganda words to proselyte the U.S. soldiers. Set up small signs made from metal or wood at the foot of trees or walls. For long slogans use several signs at intersections or the edge of the forest written by a good writer. You can print by typograph or lithograph on small pieces of paper and disseminate as butterflies. Those units that cannot print could type or write by hand. You could write on walls, rice containers, water containers, or barns and stables. Use paint to write slogans on trees. Don’t use slogans which have the same meaning in one place. For example, these could be used:
Stop immediately US aggressive war in South Vietnam.
No to suffering and deadly operations! Demand to be sent to the rear.
Oppose the war! Demand repatriation and peace.
Don’t destroy houses and properties of civilians.
Let the Vietnamese people settle their own affairs.
U.S. soldiers do not destroy these slogans; they gather and look at them. Some of them take pictures of nicely written slogans. These slogans have good effect on US soldiers. Many of them stop and refuse to move forward. Organize the people, associations, agencies, armies, and guerrillas to write and place slogans everywhere in order to push forward the political offensive against the US soldiers and their satellites that are confused and have anti-war thinking before our great victories.
A second captured document gives the Viet Cong 54 slogans, some of them long enough to make a propaganda leaflet. I will mention a few of the more interesting ones, but just take a line out of each paragraph:
The Vietnamese people are doing what the Americans did in 1776.
Weapons factories make profits while GIs die.
Why do you sacrifice yourselves for the Saigon puppet traitor clique?
Don’t misuse our women!
Don’t kill pigs, chickens, buffaloes, and oxen of civilians,
Black GI’s! Oppose the racist US authorities; your enemies are not the Vietnamese people.
Black GI’s! Your compatriots in Detroit and in the States are victims of US racist segregation.
Black GI’s and the Vietnamese people have the same enemy, US segregation.
80,000 GI’s have been killed and wounded during the dry season of 1966-1967.
Viet Cong Code of Discipline
Viet Cong Tax Receipt Bond
Notice that the code states that the Viet Cong will never take anything from the people. So, how were the people compensated when the VC came to their village and took their rice and livestock? The people were paid with bonds that were to be bought back by the Communist government after the glorious revolution. The bonds were very attractive and colorful, but worthless. This method of payment allowed the Viet Cong to take from the people but pretend instead that they were buying foodstuffs. There are about a half dozen different such bonds known. In all cases the VC cadre would fill in the information on how much was taken, its worth and then sign the form. He kept the stub; the farmer kept the bond. Of course, he quickly hid it because South Vietnamese troops finding it would believe that the farmer was helping the Viet Cong. The farmer was in a lose-lose situation. The bond above was issued by the Ministry of Finance and National Liberation Front Committee.
A Captured Viet Cong Document
Public Appeal by the National Liberation Front of
It is interesting to see the gradual change in Viet Cong statements as the war went on. Both sides went to great pains to gather information written by the enemy. These documents were used for intelligence purposes. By studying what the enemy said, it was sometimes possible to identify their current strategy, needs and weaknesses. One American comment about Intelligence states:
From the Cloak and Dagger boys comes this message (and plea). WE ARE NOT GETTING ENOUGH GOOD INTELLIGENCE AND SOMEONE SITS TOO LONG ON MUCH OF WHAT WE DO RECEIVE. Some of you may not realize the value of what you see end hear, yet it may be just the piece needed to complete the puzzle. Remember that intelligence must be timely, so please don't delay it. If in doubt, write it up and let the next higher level decide on the importance of the information. See that reports come thru both the RVN and MAAG channels. Don't worry about being another James Bond. If your stuff answers who, when, what, where, how and why, it will be good.
In the case of the Americans, every enemy document was important. A Propaganda Work Sheet, MAAG Form 934 was prepared by Headquarters, U.S. Military Assistance Advisory Group
, dated 6 December 1962. It asked Vietnam troops to fill out the some of the following data: U.S.
Type of propaganda (Leaflet, Poster, Loudspeaker).
Length of time or quantity.
Method used (how distributed, by whom)
Date and time of occurrence.
Who observed or picked up.
Brief estimate of effectiveness.
As the war went on and the Communists got better at propaganda they would never mention a loss or weakness. However, in these very early documents found about 1962 you can see that they are simply trying to survive and beg the people to help. One document confiscated by American troops says in part:
Public Appeal by the National Liberation Front of
Use enemy weapons to kill the enemy!
Dear Fellow citizens!
Armed struggle needs weapons and ammunition. The revolution, in this present critical situation with shortages, has cleverly solved this problem by the motto: Use enemy weapons to kill the enemy!
Nowadays, due to the military increase of the
and Diem bunch, our liberators are valiantly facing unexpected difficulties. More than 50% of the liberators weapons and ammunition are gone Try to persuade the Civilian Guards and Civil Defense Corps and young men guarding the hamlets to stand by the revolution by supplying weapons and ammunition Stand by the revolution to the bitter end. Remember that one cartridge is now equivalent to one rifle . United States
This document certainly tells the Allies that the Viet Cong are facing a terrible shortage of weapons and ammunition. It is very valuable and would certainly lead to increased military action against VC strongholds. On the other hand, the message is so dire and threatening that one almost suspects this is a black document produced by the allies to frighten the unarmed Viet Cong. A second similar document attached to the MAAG document says in part:
Stand for the Heroic Combat of the Southern Emancipators!
Our Dear People!
During the last few months, the Hunting Dog Southern Army, Civilian Guard and Civil Defense Corps have been armed and trained by the American Empire, so they have gained a number of temporary victories. In the battlefield they have used the most brutal measures in order to eliminate our emancipators and the Idolized Revolution of the Southern People.
Our people! Hold onto your belief in the clear-sighted guidance of the Southern liberating movement and the talents of the commanding cadres of our emancipators. Turn a deaf ear to the propaganda argument of Diem and the American Empire.
Hold onto your convictions and continue standing for the righteous fighters of the Southern liberating movement.
Knock down Diem and the American Empire.
Long live the heroic combat of the emancipators!
Stand for the heroic combat of the emancipators.
Once again, this is a rather strange document. In the later stages of the war such statements were always extremely positive and forecast victory. This document points out that the VC have been beaten a number of times but promises a better future if the people will just have faith. We know it is a genuine VC statement, but once again it is so negative in tone that it could almost be an American disinformation document.
Another Viet Cong document captured in 1970 discusses the activities of security and armed elements of the
Republicof Vietnamand the in Quang Da Province during the first few months of 1969. The 36-page report indicates that the Viet Cong acquired massive data on the security and intelligence services, police, psywar and pacification organizations, political and religious parties and the Phuong Hoang (Phoenix) and Chieu Hoi (Open Arms) campaigns. Notice that the tone is now far more positive. Even though they admit some set-backs and defections, the overall theme of the document is that they will eventually achieve victory. We will quote a little of what they say about PSYOP activities: United States
The enemy has doubled his PSYWAR and Chieu Hoi activities, resorted to bribery and persuasive and oppressive measures, and employed many technical facilities to spread propaganda From strongholds, the enemy used loudspeakers to spread propaganda all day long. He even used ralliers and defectors to appeal to Viet Cong cadre over the
radio station and dropped different types of leaflets by means of aircraft. These leaflets were designed to arouse the peoples sentiment and undermine national solidarity. Da Nang
The enemy has used ammunition and bombs to massacre people and cadre Such enemy activities made a number of cadres, soldiers and families lose their vigilance. Since the beginning of this year, 19 cadre, 29 guerrillas, 15 local troops, 28 youth group members, and 135 families in Duy Xuyen District have moved to enemy controlled areas.
He resorted to demagogic measures and bribery in conjunction with terrorism, massacre, looting, and destruction of crops and houses then he organized relief activities, issued rice and clothes to them to win their hearts and minds.
In general, the enemy was unsuccessful in his rural pacification, Chieu Hoi and PSYWAR activities. The people came to realize the true face of the
and Puppet Governments. However, at various times and places, the enemy succeeded in relocating a number of local inhabitants in the cities and sowing confusion among others thus forcing them to move to controlled areas. U.S.
A Viet Cong Threatening Letter
This threatening letter is interesting because it implies that the Viet Cong had a regular series of form letters sent to those they considered traitors to the cause. Note that this letter says that a previous letter had already been sent. We can surmise a third letter would be sent after this one, perhaps stating that a court had been held, the recipient was tried and convicted and sentenced to death. The original is in Vietnamese of course. This is an official U.S. Army translation.
The Special Operations Research Office of the
(SORO) published the classified A Short Guide to Psychological Operations in the Republic of Vietnam in 1965. Authors Jeanne Mintz, Herbert Silverberg and James Trinnaman discuss the Viet Cong propaganda tactics: American University
The Viet Cong place great emphasis on face-to-face contact with the individual peasant, where this is possible. In less secure areas they use leaflets, but only as a last resort. Normally they attempt to infiltrate a five-man team into the village. The team stays overnight, circulating from house to house, holding mass meetings, and distributing printed matter.
And how were the Viet Cong propagandists trained to interact so well with the people? One way was to found propaganda schools throughout
. A classified document from the 135th Military Intelligence group details the interrogation of Le Tai, a Viet Cong intelligence agent captured 21 April 1967. Le Tai speaks of the South Vietnam . This was a Viet Cong ideology and propaganda school located near Ba Thap Hamlet in Four Area Training School . Students spent one full week in the school being trained in the latest VC ideology before going forth to propagandize and seek coverts. Ninh Truan Province
An advantage that the Viet Cong had was a direct line of command and a guidance policy for propaganda that left no room for error. I have read numerous American PSYOP after-actions and they depict a lack of strong guidance, communication, training, equipment and repair. Some examples are a PSYOP After-Action Report by Colonel William E. Linn, Chief of Policy, Plans and Research and later the Assistant Director for Field Operations of JUSPAO from March 1968 to April 1969.
COL Linn is particularly disturbed that JUSPAO was never warned in advance about major policy shifts, and if given advance notice, was not allowed to utilize the information for PSYOP. He gives as example the bombing halts of March 1968 and October 1968. On both occasions JUSPAO was ready to tell the Vietnamese people why the bombing was halted. Because they had no guidance or permission they were unable to do so. As a result:
Hanoi propagandists had a field day pounding all Vietnamese target audiences that they had won a total victory; to fight on until the U.S. aggressors are forced out of Vietnam; that the North Vietnamese regime had not conceded anything to the United States at Paris; and that the United States was required to admit defeat due to U.S. and world public opinion; and that the bombing halt was proof that the communists fight in the Republic of Vietnam was just and right.
Colonel Taro Katagiri commanded the 4th PSYOP Group from 4 October 1968 to 13 March 1970. He discusses some of his units problems in the declassified Senior Officer Debriefing Report. He says that there needs to be better method of coordinating and unifying the PSYOP message. The army needs senior officers to understand what PSYOP can do. He gives an example of a brigade commander who boasted that his Chieu Hoi program consisted of two howitzers, one named Chieu and the other Hoi. He tells of pilots not wanting to drop leaflets because That is mixing politics with war. He wants an appreciation of PSYOP taught to all officers from early in their training.
While some Americans were arguing with each other about the value of PSYOP, the Viet Cong were holding village meetings, singing and putting on plays, and gathering converts.
A Vietnamese interpreter and Australian Army Private David Bannister inspect a Viet Cong propaganda leaflet found during Operation Pinnaroo. It consisted of a clearing operation in the
villageof Long Dienand then a search and destroy action in the Long Hai hills south of Nui Dat, in March 1968. Photo courtesy of the Australian War Memorial. Phuoc Tuy Province
Faked Photo of General William Westmoreland
Since we are mentioning photographs, I should point out that many of the propaganda photographs published by the communist forces and sent around the world were bogus. This subject is discussed by Dino A. Brugioni in Photo Fakery, Brasseys,
, 1999: Virginia
During the Vietnam War, the North Vietnamese carefully monitored public opinion in the
, especially the American publics reaction to any massacre of innocent civilians. Sensing sympathy, they began to orchestrate a program to denigrate the U.S. military by showing that the killing of the innocents was not accidental but a policy deliberately fostered by the U.S. High Command in Vietnam. General William Westmoreland was singled out for condemnation. To foster this idea, the North Vietnamese combined a Newsweek cover photo of the general with a massacre scene and circulated the result as proof that the United States military had embarked on a deliberate policy of killing innocent civilians. United States
There are a number of high-quality leaflets that were obviously made in North Vietnam. They attempt to disguise that fact by bearing identification such as "South Vietnam NLF" but it is doubtful that anyone was fooled. The leaflets were carried down the Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos and Cambodia for dissemination in South Vietnam. The NLF did not have the ability to disseminate their leaflets by air. They carried their leaflets by hand and placed them in bars, restaurants, and along jungle trails where the Americans and their Allies were sure to find them. They varied in size and shape. Most were single sheets of paper, but rarely leaflets were designed to fold out to reveal longer messages inside.
People show me beautiful full-color leaflets on fine paper and cardboard and tell me they were found in the jungle. I tell them that the VC usually had poor printing, sometimes hand-printing, and generally used terrible paper from note books or whatever they could find. The fancy leaflets were made in Hanoi.
The official U.S. Army Europe booklet PSYOP Quarterly of January 1966 might say it best:
Although the highly successful Viet Cong propaganda operations are conducted at the grass-roots, person-to-person level, the Viet Cong have not ignored the use of leaflets and other more modern devices in their efforts to win support of the Vietnamese people. Most of the Viet Cong leaflets are crudely printed on rough paper to increase credibility among the Vietnamese people who are not used to high-quality printed matter. Strangely, Viet Cong psychological warfare often disseminates the same poorly printed matter to U.S. soldiers who are used to much finer quality printing.
A Tunnel Rat (usually a thin soldier with the ability to crawl down and search Viet Cong tunnels) with two tours, one with the 25th Infantry Division and Military Assistance Command Vietnam down south, and later with the 11th Light Infantry Brigade in I Corps up north, said that he would constantly find propaganda stations below the earth that printed Viet Cong documents. He said that the size of the printing operation depended on the size of the tunnel or the bunker. When he was in the 25th Infantry Division and assigned to MACV, the soil composition allowed for much more elaborate set ups, with more printing material. He saw small hand cranked presses, but said in general the operations were much larger. When he went to the 11th LIB, he said the tunnels and propaganda stations were much smaller and more primitive, as the soil up north in I Corps wasnt as supportive for larger complexes. He was there a bit after 1968, and was still finding printing presses and propaganda stations locally in tunnels.
In May 1968, a 5th Special Forces Team operating in Tay Nihn captured a small Viet Cong printing press and presented it to the 4th PSYOP Group. The press included a roller, handset type faces and a small quantity of dog-eared paper used by the enemy to print Communist propaganda leaflets.
The 199th Light Infantry Brigade attacked a Viet Cong base 30 miles northeast of Saigon and forced the enemy to abandon a silk-screen printing machine, printer’s ink, and numerous sheaves of paper. According to the 15 July 1969 Stars and Stripes, the camp was believed to have been “the nucleus of a small-scale Communist printing and distributing operation for propaganda and military bulletins.”
In October 1969, the Americal Division found a Viet Cong propaganda factory 10 kilometers south of Kam Ty. The camp contained a crude printing press, a Soviet flag, and stacks of enemy leaflets written in Vietnamese and broken English. Leaflets mentioned leaders and places of political rallies in the United States, medical care given American captives by the Viet Cong, and statement allegedly made by freed American servicemen. The printing press printed leaflets for use as far as 150 kilometers away.
Communist Leaflet Mortar
This photograph from Hanoi claims that their troops were firing propaganda
leaflet mortar shells at a U.S. base in Quang Tri Province in South Vietnam.
Although it is generally assumed that most Communist leaflets were distributed by hand since the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong never had control of the air, the 1971 Associated Press photograph above indicates that on occasion they were able to leaflet American outposts by mortar shell. The photograph was apparently sent to Warsaw from Hanoi by radiophone where it was spotted by the Associated Press and forwarded to the United States. The text on the back of the photo is:
18 February 1971 Propaganda Power This photo from Hanoi monitored in Warsaw purports to show North Vietnamese in Quang Tri Thua Thien, South Vietnam, firing propaganda leaflets in mortar shells into a base occupied by Allied forces.
We know more about the Communist use of mortars for leaflet dissemination from the Vietnamese Peoples Army Newspaper of 1 May 2017. It mentions the use of leaflet mortar rounds in an article entitled: Unique and Effective Attack Spearhead. The story indicates that the North Vietnamese ability to print propaganda leaflets was much greater than we believed. We know that the Viet Cong in the bush had small portable printers. However, the Enemy Proselyting Department in Hanoi was printing a higher grade leaflet and they had plenty of printing capacity to do that. They could print 100,000 at a time and that is the sign of a modern operation. The authors say in part:
During the resistance war against the Americans to save the nation (1954-1975) the Enemy Proselyting Department was both a responsible agency of the General Political Department and an action agency of the Military Proselyting Bureau of the Central Unification Committee. The Enemy Proselyting Department paid special attention to providing guidance for and arranging the introduction of many different methods of conducting propaganda operations through the use of documents, leaflets, and various types of printed materials and propaganda equipment.
The department constantly encouraged the writing and production of military-enemy proselyting leaflets, drawings [cartoons], posters, and calendars along with dozens of different publications to support our military-enemy proselyting propaganda operations. During the first six months of 1968 alone the department printed a total of almost there million copies of ten different leaflets and calendars and coordinated the design and production of ten thousand leaflet artillery rounds (each round containing approximately 500-600 small leaflets), primarily targeted against American troops along with a small number targeted against Lao puppet army troops.
During the Route 9-Tri Thien campaign, the Front printed three different types of leaflets for use in separate, individual situations (attack, fighting the enemy after he had fallen back to regroup, and fighting off enemy counterattacks). When the campaign began the department printed 100,000 additional leaflets of three different types, and in the middle of the campaign it printed 100,000 more leaflets of two different types. The department provided staff advice for the General Political Departments effort to produce and ship hundreds of thousands of leaflets, consisting of 16 different types of leaflets targeted on puppet army troops and four different types of leaflets targeted against American troops and to ship to the front lines 560 leaflet rockets, 7,200 leaflet mortar rounds, 238 megaphones, and 19 loudspeakers.
The Summary of Dong Nai Province Military Proselyting Operations During the Resistance War Against the Americans, 1954-1975 mentions leaflets. I must admit that the number of leaflets seems high and I suspect they are exaggerating, but my job is to reprint the document, not critique it.
In late 1967 the COSVN Military Proselyting Section sent three cadres to reinforce Sub-Region 4 in Bien Hoa, including one cadre who could speak, read, and write Thai to help the section write and print propaganda leaflets…During protest demonstrations, our military proselyting organization conducted almost 3,000 loudspeaker operations aimed at 2,500 enemy outposts and distributed 205,000 leaflets in the English or Thai languages and 108,000 Vietnamese-language leaflets. The content of the loudspeaker broadcasts and the leaflets clearly explained that the American war of aggression was unjust and criminal and that our people’s resistance war was just.
During the struggles, the workers used these opportunities to give English-language leaflets to American soldiers appealing to them to oppose the war and to demand that they be sent back home. The Binh Son children’s unit were able to become friendly with American and Thai soldiers, steal weapons and ammunition from them, obtain intelligence, and distribute military proselyting leaflets to those soldiers… As for our work targeting U.S. and Thai units and individual American and Thai soldiers, from the first of 1969 and the end of 1972 we distributed 320,000 leaflets in the English and Thai languages (170,000 English-language leaflets and 150,000 Thai-language leaflets). The English-language leaflets and posters were used primarily in Bien Hoa City, Long Khanh City, and Vinh Cuu, and the Thai language leaflets were used primarily in Long Thanh and Nhon Trach districts.
Bobby Lee Horton wrote a master’s degree thesis titled, A Content Analysis of Viet Cong Leaflets as Propaganda, 1963-68, at Texas Tech University. He looked at Viet Cong leaflets archived in Texas Tech. He saw most of the same things we have depicted in this article. I should point out that the American PSYOP and Intelligence troops also collected and catalogued Viet Cong leaflets. At the end of this article, I show the National Liberation Front Propaganda booklet from my files. Some of Horton’s comments are:
The clandestine leaflet. Douglas Pike said, was the major mass medium of the NLF in its earliest days; the leaflet program reached its zenith of utility in mid-1963. Leaflets usually took one of three forms: (1) a two-to-four-page tract containing several thousand words of text, (2) a small leaflet, about 3 by 5 inches, containing a much shorter message, or (3) a slogan slip, which was a strip of paper on which a single slogan was written.
The leaflets were usually the work of cadres, small squads that were trained to carry out military and/or political actions in South Vietnam. The slogan slip was meant to be the work of the people themselves, usually as part of a struggle movement, and was a device highly prized by the leadership.
This study analyzed the content of 114 items of written propaganda distributed by the Viet Cong in South Vietnam between 1963 and 1968, a period encompassing years of escalating military activities in the Vietnam War. The items were typed, stenciled or hand-scrawled, mostly in Vietnamese but sometimes in English. Their intended audiences were by turns religious groups, students, women, intellectuals, Vietnamese government soldiers, American servicemen, and others. Some of the messages directed at these diverse targets were terse slogans or messages of one or two sentences; others, in the form of handbills or leaflets, ran to a page or more of text. A handful appeared to have been produced by professional printers; most did not. For the most part, this was written propaganda originated and disseminated in inhospitable areas including dense jungles or swampy delta lands. Yet they survived in fairly good condition and are maintained now as part of the Pike collection of Vietnam era materials in the Vietnam Archives of Texas Tech University.
"Hey, Hey, LBJ" Leaflet
A favorite theme of these leaflets was the anti-war movement back in the United States. One shows a group of marchers carrying banners that read "Get out of Viet Nam" and "Stop the Bombing." Text at the upper left in bright red is:
Hey, Hey, LBJ, and the anti-war slogan: Hey, Hey, LBJ, How many kids did you kill today?"
Some of the text on the back is:
Hey, Hey, LBJ. How many kids did you kill today? That's what everybody's saying all over the US today. And millions of people all over the world who know no other English shout it.
Marine Private First Class Randy Ware was stationed in Quang Tri Province when he found some of these leaflets on the ground. Other members of his unit said they had been fired from Viet Cong 82mm mortars. David Capps of the USMC Force Logistic Support Group Alpha, told me about a mortar attack on Phu Bai combat base that happened on 22 December 1967 about 10 p.m. to midnight. The Viet Cong used about every third or fourth mortar shell to explode in the air and distribute the leaflets Hey, Hey, LBJ and I wish I was an Alabama trooper over the Americans.
Another such story is mentioned in the 23rd Infantry Division’s Southern Cross, 14 May 1941:
First Platoon found the leaflets when they returned to a bunker complex to blow it up. Thousands of the papers were scattered in the sand. There were two varieties of propaganda. Both illustrated pictures of protest meetings in the United States. The leaflets employed smooth English, not like many of their predecessors which read like a first-grade textbook. The men were amazed at how well-done they were. This was not done by a back-woods Vietnamese. They were made by some sharp characters. The literary content of the leaflets used phrases like "Yankee, go home," and "Sit on the fence" urging a feeling of apathy. The push was towards internal dissent and surrender. They wanted the Gls to lay down their arms in the middle of a firefight. Their reward was to be good treatment. Another plea in the leaflets was for American soldiers was to seek asylum in countries such as the Soviet Union, Sweden, Canada, and North Vietnam. The general attitude of the soldiers was, "What the hell does North Vietnam have to offer me?"
An Anti-War Demonstration
A captured enemy anti-war document is a directive dated 28 April 1971, that urges the addressees to motivate discussions among the people on recent antiwar demonstrations in the
. This document was captured on 12 May 1971 in United States by Company A, 2nd Battalion, 1st Infantry division: South Vietnam
Strengthen the struggle movement of the people of all classes, step up the enemy proselyting activities and the anti-Vietnam war movement of the Americans.
In cities, motivate the people to spread rumors. Use newspapers, news reports and radio stations to spread the struggle movement of the American people to meet the following requirements:
Win public opinion among all city dwellers to motivate the masses to back the struggle movement of the American people by demanding an end to the
South Viet Namwar, rapid withdrawal of all UStroops from South Viet Namand restoration of peace in Viet Namas well as in Indochina.
Another document believed to from the Hoai Haong District Party Committee,
, Viet Cong Region 6 adds: Bin Tuy Province
The spontaneous antiwar movements in the
UShave received assistance and guidance from the friendly North Viet Namdelegation at the Peace Talks. Of the Paris antiwar movements, the two most important ones are: The PCPJ (the People's Committee for Peace and Justice) and the NPAC (National Peace Action Committee). These two movements have gathered much strength and staged many demonstrations. The PCPJ is the most important. It maintains relations with us. US
Anti-War Activists hand out Propaganda Leaflets
The term useful idiots was coined by the leaders of the Soviet Union to describe those in the West who naively promoted the cause of Communism when in reality they were cynically used by the Communist hierarchy. The use of the term in political discourse has since been extended to other propagandists, especially those who are seen to unwittingly support a malignant cause which they naïvely believe to be a force for good. This Bob Langer Chicago Sun-Times wire photo depicts American anti-war activists handing out leaflets entitled Vietnam Moratorium No More, on 15 October 1969.
Le Quang Vinh
On the subject of using Americans for anti-war purposes, the above leaflet mentions the killing of a handsome young professor by South Vietnam. Notice that the back of the leaflet is not signed by any organization though it is clearly from Hanoi or the Viet Cong. Notice also that it is in English. Why would a North Vietnamese leaflet be in English? Only to be used to gather support from the west. Notice also that there is no mention of the crime of these four youths. Yes, the professor says, I only regret I could not kill all So, he seems to be admitting he killed some people, but not as many as he wanted. He is clearly not a young intellectual idealist; he is a murderer. The death penalty seems appropriate for such a crime. To make it even more interesting, although the leaflet implies he was put to death, in fact he spent 15 years in prison and was released when the North won their war for Vietnam. A very interesting use of words that mean little but imply a lot.
The American people are struggling fiercely
An example of how college students and others were used by the Communists is found in this South Vietnam Liberation National Front leaflet that mentions three anti-war actions. The first is a California University demonstration in May 1965, the second a mothers group sending a letter to President Johnson on 21 June 1965, and the third a demonstration in San Francisco on 25 June 1965. Leaflets of this type were meant to demoralize the American soldier by showing him that he had no support at home.
Carolyn Page mentions U.S. anti-war groups in U.S. Official Propaganda during the Vietnam War, 1965-1973, Leicester University Press, London, 1996:
The U.S. anti-war groups and the arguments used to criticize U.S. involvement in the conflict were of value to the North Vietnamese and the Viet Cong. Here were ready-made divisions to exploit and arguments to use in addition to their own propaganda lines. This was probably doubly welcome in view of the vast differences in culture in society between America and Vietnam, which would pose the first problem for a propagandist; understanding the enemy environment in order to attack it most effectively.
YANKS COME HOME!
A leaflet with the same theme shows a group marching under a banner that reads:
International Days of Protest Against the War in Vietnam.
Some of the text on the back is:
YANKS! COME HOME!
That's what they are saying in the States. They're right! There's no reason for you to be away from home.
YANKS! GO HOME!
The message on the back of this leaflet will be found again on the next three leaflets.
YANKS COME HOME:
The same general message is found on this leaflet signed by the South Vietnam Liberation Armed Front. The back calls the war Johnsons War and claims that it is being fought for profits; none of which will ever be seen by any of the men fighting the war.
YANKS COME HOME
An interesting South Vietnam National Liberation Front leaflet depicts a soldier in a tunnel moving toward a distant opening. It is clearly a satiric reference to General Westmorelands comment about seeing light at the end of the tunnel; a reference to an eventual victory in the Vietnam War. The text on the front of the leaflets is:
THE ONLY WAY OUT
COME HOME NOW
The back of the leaflet is all text. Some of the comments are:
YANKS COME HOME
Thats what theyre crying in the States. Theyre right! Theres no reason for you to be away from home.
YANKS GO HOME
Thats what theyre shouting all over
. Theyre right! Theres no reason for you to be here where nobody except a few crooks who betray their own people want you. South Vietnam
YANKS COME HOME!
YANKS GO HOME!
The message is signed by the South Vietnam National Front for Liberation.
BRING OUR BOYS HOME NOW!
This leaflet would seem to be from the same artist that did the one above. The image of the GI and the use of color are similar. More interesting, the back has the exact same message. The text on the front is:
BRING OUR BOYS HOME NOW
BACK HOME THEYRE AGAINST THE WAR
Like the one above, the message is signed by the South Vietnam National Front for Liberation.
YANKS COME HOME!
Courtesy Major Hammond Salley
Another leaflet using the same title is this all-text leaflet printed on a thin pulp paper in brown ink. This all-text leaflet has the same message as the three leaflets above, but now on the front. Whoever wrote this message really thought it was powerful and has used in four times. Some of the text on the back urges U.S. Troops to:
Support the present movement of the American people to demand the ending of Johnsons war in Vietnam and repatriation of American GIs.
This leaflet asks the Americans why they have come 10,000 miles to fight in a civil war. In points out the injury done to the Vietnamese people by napalm, white phosphorous, and poison gas. It compares American troops with German troops who committed atrocities on the command of Adolf Hitler. It is a fairly effective text.
Two other of Captain Salleys leaflets brought back from Vietnam are printed in orange ink with the title Why? and in black ink without title but with the first line of text: American servicemen will not fight in the war against the South Vietnamese people and serve as cannon-fodder for U.S. monopoly capitalists.
Why and Whom
This leaflet also asks why? Some of the text is:
Why has the ruling circle sent you over here? Because they want the big dollar profit from the Vietnam War .
The leaflet has Vietnamese text on the back and the code M-56919. The M means American.
HANG ON TO YOUR HEAD
This National Liberation Front leaflet dated February 1967 depicts a rusting helmet on the ground with a flower growing through it. The symbolism is good. It implies American death and defeat, and the flower was a hippy symbol of peace, often placed in the barrel of a soldier's rifle. The back is all text. Some of the message is:
HANG ON TO YOUR HEAD
now number over 400,000. GIs killed, maimed or missing more than 131,000. Vietnam
Lots of soldiers
Lots of money
Lots of hardware
Lots of coffins!
Better make it out before youre pushing up daisies too.
GO HOME ALIVE!
Thats what theyre shouting all over South Vietnam. Theyre right! Theres no reason for you to be here where nobody except a few crooks who betray their own people want you.
One of these leaflets was sent home by Lieutenant Charles A. Brown of the 1st Air Cavalry who found them in Quang Tri in 1967. It appeared in his local newspaper.
A December 1967 Military Assistance Command Vietnam J2 (Intelligence document) adds:
Several hundred VC propaganda leaflets directed at U.S. servicemen were recently discovered near Pleiku Air Ease. The leaflets were of four types. Two emphasized the serviceman’s separation from his family at Christmas and the fact that many of the many of the men would not enjoy another Christmas. A third type urged the servicemen to join the anti-war movement alleged to be spreading among U.S. troops. A fourth type, lithographed in four colors, claimed that 131,000 GIs had been killed, wounded, or were listed as missing in the var. It also listed names or several major U.S. firms allegedly making profits from the war while GIs were dying. The reverse side of this leaflet shows a photograph of a daisy growing through a hole in a US helmet and the readers were urged to go home “before you're pushing up daisies too.” The quality of printing and the grammar used in the leaflets are superior to average VC/NVA propaganda and suggest the leaflets may have been produced somewhere other than in North Vietnam or the Republic of Vietnam. The type was obviously composed by someone familiar with contemporary English and slang and reflects knowledge of recent anti-war demonstrations in the U.S.
End the War in Vietnam
An occasional theme of the NLF was a demand for peaceful negotiation. They produced a leaflet that shows a symbol of peace on the front, a female holding a palm frond. Above her are the words "END THE WAR IN VIETNAM." There is a long message on the back; some pertinent comments are, "Peace! Negotiations! Cry the U.S. warmakers. But peace has not come yet. Because the Americans and their puppets want no serious talks yet "
Black Men Should Not Fight in Vietnam for Racist America
"I wish I were an Alabama trooper..."
Some of the NLF leaflets emphasized the racial problems at home. One depicts black men holding a sign that says:
Black men should not fight in Vietnam for racist U.S.A." Some of the text on back is, "I wish I were an Alabama trooper, that is what I would truly like to be. I wish I was an Alabama trooper, cause then I could kill the niggers legally.
Lt. Charles A. Brown also sent this leaflet home where it appeared in a local newspaper with the caption:
Negro target Pictures taken during demonstrations in the U.S are used by the Communists in an attempt to get Negro servicemen to desert or surrender. They are promised amnesty.
Corporal David Capps of the USMC Force Logistic Support Group Alpha, told me about a mortar attack on Phu Bai combat base that happened on 22 December 1967 about 10 p.m. to midnight. The Viet Cong used about every third or fourth mortar shell to explode in the air and distribute the leaflets Hey, Hey, LBJ and I wish I was an Alabama trooper over the Americans.
A similar leaflet depicts another anti-War crowd carrying signs such as Weapons cannot win the people and "Bring the troops home now. Some of the text on the back is:
The Vietnamese are not exploiting you nor discriminating against you. No Vietnamese shoots and kills Black freedom-fighters in the streets of
. The Vietnamese are fighting for their own independence and freedom. America
A similar all-text leaflet says in part:
Over the past two months, more than a million of Black men in your homeland, armed with weapons, have risen up against U.S. racial administrations terrorism and cruel suppression. This movement of struggle has been becoming ever more fiercer and wider, prevailing throughout over 90 cities and provincial towns in 23 states of U.S.A. Detroit of Michigan was especially considered the theater of combat. Being afraid of this resolute and powerful struggle, The U.S racial capitalist authorities sent ten of thousand policemen and soldiers to Detroit, tank and helicopters were applied to suppress it. Blood is shedding, the black casualties were about one hundred killed and wounded, thousands arrested.. But the endless shots were heard and their struggle for the rights of EQUALITY and FREEDOM kept on going stronger all over U.S.A.
A third all-text leaflet with the same title said in part:
Your leader, Martin Luther King was assassinated. Who has killed him? Where is Luther Kings and all of Afro-Americans enemy? There enemy is not in Vietnam but in the very U.S.A. Join in your comrades common struggle. US go home!
Afro American people
This 10-page stapled booklet written in English and Vietnamese was prepared by the Viet Cong on 31 July 1967. It is addressed to Afro-Americans and tells of riots in the streets and the story of young Cassius Clay (AKA Muhammad Ali) who has refused to be drafted and sent to South Vietnam and is being punished by the U.S. Government. It is full of spelling and grammatical errors, and this detracts from its credibility as a propaganda piece. Clay is mentioned on page 4:
To protest against unjust war in Vietnam, Cassius Marcellus Clay, a heavy weight boxer of world champion, refuse to enlist and to be sent to South Vietnam.
The story explains that he was punished by the loss of his ability to make money but he was willing to give up his championship, a million dollars a year and his reputation for his conscience.
History tells us that Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr., changed his name to Muhammad Ali in 1964 after converting to Islam. On April 28, 1967, with the United States at war in Vietnam, Ali refused to be inducted into the armed forces, saying I aint got no quarrel with those Vietcong. On June 20, 1967, Ali was convicted of draft evasion, sentenced to five years in prison, fined $10,000 and banned from boxing for three years. He stayed out of prison as his case was appealed and returned to the ring on 26 October 1970. According to the date on this leaflet it was prepared just three months after the court case.
An Earlier Version?
Curiously, there is a much better version of this pamphlet that is just four pages long. Because of the quality, one would think it was a later production with better printing presses and paper. But, it does not mention Muhammed Ali so I assume it is an earlier version. The date was not changed on either version so they both say July 21 at 1967.
U.S. Colored Armymen
Being really old I have lived through various names that Afro-Americans called themselves. As a youth they were Colored, then the term Negro became popular, soon followed by Black with the rise of the Black Panthers and Black Muslims. Sometimes you hear People of color, but the current acceptable term is Afro-American. I mention that because looking at the last few Viet Cong leaflets we see the various words used. The first mentions Black men, then Afro-Americans, and this leaflet uses Colored. Regardless of the name, the aim is always the same; to motivate the minorities to rise up against the whites in some kind of race war that will weaken their forces and help the Communists win in Vietnam.
US ARMYMEN NEGRO ARMYMEN
This leaflet is signed by the Central Trungbo Revolutionary Armed Forces. The leaflet uses the assassination of Martin Luther King and the alleged violence of the military and police in the United States against those blacks that rose up in protest as its theme. On the back a Viet Cong radio station is mentioned for the American listener.
Special broadcasts for GIs in Vietnam are on the air daily. From 4:30 to 5:00 p.m. Saigon time, from 9:00 to 9:30 p.m. Saigon time, on the 25 and 30 meter band.
You are not Alone
This colorful folded South Vietnam NLF leaflet uses the color red to catch the attention of the soldier. Lieutenant Charles A. Brown of the 1st Air Cavalry found this one in Quang Tri in 1967. The text on the cover is:
You are not Alone in Hating this War
The leaflet opens up to show two photographs on the inside; three American servicemen who refused to board a plane bound for Vietnam and an anti-War demonstration. Some of the text is:
Vietnam has never attacked the US. The Vietnam War is a U.S. aggression just like Hitler fascist aggression in the past.
A small printed Viet Cong leaflet says simply:
There is no hatred among the Vietnamese people and your own ones. So why are you killing the Vietnamese?
G.I! DONT take part in any operations move forward shoot. You will return home safely!
Demand the war end
A second such piece has the text:
Demand the war end and your home repatriation! The Vietnamese affairs should be settled by the Vietnamese themselves.
This short leaflet demands that Vietnamese peasants be compensated for any losses caused by the South Vietnamese government of the Americans. Notice that they made two words of indemnified:
Any damage should be indemni fied!
End the Vietnam War! US go Home!
This leaflet had a similar message in Vietnamese for ARVN troops on the back.
Do not go on operation
Often these small leaflets would just contain one line. The leaflet above has the English-language text on one side and the same text in Vietnamese on the back.
An End to the war
This is another small leaflet that seems to have been printed by the same Viet Cong Unit. Once again, the back is in in Vietnamese.
I have seen a number of these small leaflets with short text messages and no images. In one case, all were numbered. Some of the messages are:
No. 2 U.S. Armymen in South Vietnam! Why should she wait for a man who is coming back as an invalid, or an amputee or not coming back at all? The legal officer of U.S. Headquarters in Saigon is processing ten divorces a day. If you still want that wife, hurry home!
No. 5 Whats in it for you GI? McNamara says Americans will have to learn to accept casualties. And that means you brother. You wont find him sweating in the jungle or going home in a coffin. There aren't any bombs planted in the Pentagon, like there will be in your barracks, you base or the local bar.
No. 6 So whats in it for you? Combat pay and a Purple Heart if you are one of the lucky ones. And what about the others? The Marines who dont come out of the jungle; the pilots who dont make it back from their missions; the guys going home that got hit in the Saigon airport. Their combat pay doesn't do them much good when they go home in a box. Better think it over soldier There isn't much in it for you!
The Vietnamese people are fighting for their independence and freedom that is just what the American did in the 18th century.
Another small group of slogan leaflets were found on trees in 1968 by members of the 11th Light Infantry Battalion. As usual the English is not quite right and in one case, I suspect they mean, “Not going to the battle”
Don’t hinder and let the Vietnamese people free to collect rice and till on their rice fields.
Repression, terror, massacre, house burning and woman raping…are not the democratic American’s ideals.
No destroying, burning, and plundering paddies and houses of the Vietnames people.
Hands off the Vietnames people’s live and properties.
Unite and refuse mopping up operations, going to the battles are the best way to preserve your lives.
Refuse to go fighting, commit no atrocities against the South Vietnamese people, urge for your home return.
What will help you?
This leaflet depicts an American with wounds to his face and leg, and coffins being shipped home. The text is:
What will help you?
Combat pay or a Purple Heart if you go home a cripple
Or in a coffin
I did not select this leaflet because of the front. If you look at the six messages above you will see that two of them use the line Whats in it for you GI? The back of this leaflet is all text and uses the same line as a title.
Another leaflet says in part:
When you fight against foreign aggressors to defend your FATHERLAND and your PEOPLE, your implementing your CODE OF CONDUCT is legitimate.
However, the present Johnson - McNamaras dirty war of aggression against the Vietnamese people, implementing your CODE OF CONDUCT does not make sense at all.
Two other Viet Cong leaflets bear similar titles. A second variety with the same title says in part:
What profit does the Johnson, McNamara aggressive war in Vietnam bring to American capitalists? Thousands of millions of dollars!
Another leaflet is entitled U.S. Armymen in South Vietnam! It has an image of a dead American soldier and says:
A death in a lost cause
This leaflet shows wear and tear and I assume it was carried in some grunts pocket through his entire tour in Vietnam. Once again we see the same title but with a longer message. It attacks Johnson and McNamara and the idea that the American invaders are fighting North Vietnamese invaders. The back of the leaflet has the same message in Vietnamese.
Another leaflet entitled simply U.S Armymen! Says:
What profit do you get by burning a house, killing a Vietnamese patriot? Nothing, but more hatred for you from the S. VN People!
This last leaflet is on a blue paper and says:
Dont sacrifice your honor and life for Johnson McNamaras dirty aggressive war in SVN. Let the South Vietnam people settle themselves their own affairs.
OPPOSE THE US AGGRESSIVE WAR IN SVN!
REPATRIATE THE US EXPEDITIONARY CORPS!
PEACE FOR VIETNAM!
OFFICERS AND MEN! U. S.
Another all-text leaflet asks the soldier how would he react if anyone invaded America. It says in part:
The South Vietnamee people love peace, but they love freedom and independence more!
It is the reason why they are rising up, taking arms to oppose the U.S. imperial aggressors and traitors to the nation.
If anyone invaded your country, massacred your compatriots, plundered villages and properties, how would you react to all that?
OFFICERS AND MEN! U. S.
Another all-text leaflet reminds the Americans of their own fight for freedom against the British. It says in part:
In former times, your ancestors heroically opposed British imperialism to realize independence, freedom to the
. That was a just war, approved by the American people and supported by the worlds people Americas
Apparently the Viet Cong were unaware of the vast number of Royalists who supported the British during the revolutionary War, and the even greater number of Europeans who though that the rebels were upstarts that should be beaten down.
To all U.S. Officers and Men!
Another leaflet using the same general title. It was part of a propaganda peace movement where Vietnamese civilians egged on by Viet Cong sympathizers pleaded with U.S forces not to use artillery near their homes and fields. The leaflet was handed to Second Lieutenant Dan Moore, a United States Marine forward observer by Vietnamese farmers pushing them to the Americans through the wire at Phu Lac, a Marine company combat base about 20 miles southwest of Da Nang.
Second Lieutenant Dan Moore
Dan had this to say about the leaflet:<
About noon on Christmas Day 1967 we were alerted that a large group of unarmed local Vietnamese villagers, accompanied by what had to be VC organizers, were approaching the base on a dirt road. The crowd stopped outside the wire. We watched the group, shouting slogans in Vietnamese, for about ten minutes. The group leaders handed us a number of small leaflets.
From a letter I sent home from Vietnam on 9 January 1968:
About 300 people brought to our base propaganda literature along with a Peace Christmas tree. They pleaded for food and protection from artillery fire, which prevented them from working their fields. This is probably true to a considerable degree. The villagers did not speak English or know what the propaganda leaflets contained.
This leaflet was handed to the American troops on Christmas Day 1967 and uses a Christmas message and ends with:
A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.
Peace for Vietnam!
U.S OFFICERS AND MEN!
I was not going to add this leaflet because we actually show the Officers and men comment about 10 times in this article. However, the story makes this item particularly interesting.
My friend SP4 Keith Klemba served in the 1st Squadron of the 1st Cavalry Division, operating out of the Marine Base Camp on Hill 29 in I Corps. He served in Vietnam for 14 months from 1968-1969. On one occasion the men were camped near the Chu Lai Beach in the summer of 1969. When they woke up they found the above leaflet on top of each tent. The VC had somehow infiltrated during the night, perhaps from the water, got past the look-outs and left each tent a leaflet. They could have just as easily cut some throats. Keith told me:
We were lucky that night that we were not killed and only received this leaflet.
U.S officers and men!
Another use of the same general title, but this one also mentions Robert McNamara who was often a target of their insults. The back of this leaflet has the same message in Vietnamese.
US OFFICERS AND MEN!
The vast majority of the leaflets using this title are all text. This leaflet has an image of President Lyndon B. Johnson on the front so I thought it was worth adding. Johnson is deep in thought and we can see that he is thinking about armed troops in Vietnam. The message on the back is in English and Vietnamese and says in part:
Johnson proclaims he wants peace negotiations without pre-conditions, but in fact the US wants:
1. To partition VN permanently into two separate states.
2. To have US troops occupy permanently South VN
This title was a favorite of the Viet Cong. I have seen many such leaflets. Five with identical titles talk of Viet Cong victories over U.S. forces; How precious American lives are and why they should be protected; American anti-war movements; the rotten regime in Saigon; and the fact that the Vietnamese are not the enemies of America and the war is a Civil War.
U. S. ARMYMEN!
Another all-text leaflet says in rather bad grammar and spelling:
U. S. ARMYMEN!
The contention that the Americans oppose the Vietnamese who aggrese
, on the Vietnamese territory is nothing but a farce! Vietnam
Is it conceivable that you, a fair minded person, believe the deceitful contentions of Johnson Macnamara?
Why sacrifice your youthful days, bury your honor and life in the
battlefieds? South Vietnam
Lance-corporal WayneEvans was stationed in from February 1966 to March 1967. He was a member of Whiskey Battery, 2nd Battalion of the 11th Marines attached to Battalion Landing Team (1st Battalion/5th Marines)which offloaded from the USS Princeton LPH-5 and set up a firebase about 12-15 miles northwest of Chu Lai on the west side of Highway 1 and did helicopter assaults from firebases Red Hill and Hill 35. He was wounded on 11 September 1966 at 0140 during a mortar and small arms attack on his perimeter security position. He brought back the above poorly printed leaflet which he found in a Viet Cong tunnel entrance on Operation Apache in June 1966. He says: Vietnam
I was with my fire team and we came upon a tunnel within the village. I looked down the vertical entrance of the tunnel (about 3 feet) and could barely see the writing on this leaflet and it looked curious. After checking for booby traps I stepped into the tunnel entrance and bent down to look closer. As I bent down to retrieve the leaflet a tarantula the size of a Buick reared up it front legs to take me on. I'll never forget that event.
This exact same message has been seen on a second leaflet without the fancy border and bird design at the bottom. It was simply printed on a plain piece of paper in a different font and style.
Captain Watts Caudill was the Commander of B Company, 1st Battalion, 18th Infantry Regiment of the 1st Infantry Division in Vietnam from 1967 to 1968 . On 26 November 1967, his position in War Zone C, west of Highway 13 and 10 miles south of Loc Nin was attacked by North Vietnamese troops. After an all night battle that included American gunships and artillery the enemy forces slipped away at dawn. As the Americans scouted the area the following day they found small folded leaflets left by the enemy. The outside of the leaflet had faded red text on the front and back of the poor quality paper. The text on the back is in Vietnamese and the English language text on the front is:
S.V.N.N.F.L. Policy towards U.S. and Alien Officers and Men
When opened, there is a longer text in black ink that describes the policy. Some of the text is:
The Front protects the life and grants lenient treatment to U.S. and other alien surrendered officers and men. It gives proper care to the wounded.
The Front takes care of the P.O.W's material and spiritual life, creates conditions to give back freedom to them when conditions permit it.
Beneath each of the two paragraphs mentioned above are three explanatory paragraphs.
It should be noted that the S.V.N.N.F.L. is the South Viet Nam National Front for Liberation. The Communist front was founded in 1960.
TO THE ANTI-WAR AMERICAN SERVICEMEN!
Another S.V.N.N.F.L. is a leaflet folded to make four pages. The outside two are in English, the inside two are in Vietnamese. The leaflet mentions Johnson and McNamara and warmly welcomes those American troops with the “Correct Attitude,” which in the case means “defector.” The finder is asked to fill out a “Bill for Special Fair Treatment” on the back and present it to the first enemy fighter he sees as he surrenders.
OUR POLICY TOWARD U.S. AND SATELLITE PRISONERS
This leaflet from the High Command of the South Vietnam Liberation Armed Forces explains that the Viet Cong are really nice people that can be trusted. It says that their policy is based on humanitarian and lenient policies, personal items will not be confiscated, prisoners can write home and of course POWs will be well-treated. Evidence seems indicate otherwise. This leaflet came directly from the Intelligence file of the 7th PSYOP Group.
Sometimes you just run across a leaflet you love because of the fractured English. This leaflet is Vietnamese on one side and something similar to English on the other. The Brown-water Navy types who found this leaflet were near Cu Chi and the Iron Triangle and faced both NVA and Viet Cong. They were one of the first PBR units on Operation Slingshot in December 1968. Three Navy taskforces in the
MekongDelta were combined to form one force to combat the enemy on a single large front. This new force was dubbed Operation SEALORDS and was designated Task Force 194. Some of the text of this leaflet is:
American gis para christmas and new year have come! Your pariets your families and. Your dead budkis are longing for and very much worried about you para every one is praying to god for your afety from the sendekess and shameful deathin the usijust war being waged byu
We should add the U.S. Navy did PSYOP work along the shores and in the rivers and streams of Vietnam using their Patrol Boats River (PBRs) for the length of the war. The U.S. Naval Forces Vietnam After-action Monthly Reports tells us much more about what the Navy did and how the Viet Cong tried to counter it:
In December 1967, along the coastline of South Vietnam and myriad waterways of the Delta, 186,000 leaflets were distributed and 150 hours of surface and 58 hours of aerial broadcasts were conducted by naval units. In addition 49,532 newspapers and 6,410 magazines were distributed to bring to the people the true news of the Government of South Vietnam.
The Viet Gong continued extensive psychological operations against the PBRs during September. The Tan Chau District Chief reported the Viet Cong were telling the populace that PBR personnel would rape, kill and steal whenever they stopped boats. The effectiveness of this was confirmed men one Sa Dec patrol stopped a boat containing young girls, several of whom went into hysterics as the patrol approached. It appeared that the Viet Cong PSYOP effort had spread to the northern areas of the Mekong Delta.
Another leaflet with the same title was found in 1970. As usual, the grammar and spelling are all wrong but I leave it as is for the reader.
Your loved ones back home don't want you are far away from home ten thousands of miles to die uselessly for the selfish interests of a few men. They are struggling to demand an end to the war in order to bring you home alive.
Why can you help being forced to be the last one killed in this war by a warlike company in washington?"
Do listen to the angry voice of your people in the demons trations against the Nixon's war on this october.
Rise up! Refuse to fight to demand an end to the war, peace for Vietnam Repatriation of all u.s troops.
Quangnam National Front for Liberation
A third leaflet with the same title. Funny that in every case there is no period after the second I. This one is in English on the front and Vietnamese on the back. It must have been printed around Christmas 1970 and is more political in nature, mentioning Cambodia and Laos. This leaflet was found by Specialist Four Kevin Perrier assigned to E-Recon, 2nd Battalion of the 7th Cavalry in early 1971 in War Zone D.
A fourth leaflet with the same title. The Viet Cong clearly liked this heading or they received orders from above to use it and followed those orders to the letter. This leaflet has the same message in Vietnamese on the back and a code which indicates it was used about fall of 1967.
Why the Struggle Movement
This is a second leaflet from the Quangnam National Front for Liberation. I only add it because the story is so damn good. A soldier from the 1st Infantry Regiment, 196th Infantry Brigade, the 23rd Infantry Division told me that his 14-man unit was holding a position on a small crown along a ridgeline. This was in Thien Phouc in early 1971. About mid-day, they were alerted that an estimated battalion of VC was coming down a trail directly at them. The men got busy putting out trip flares and Claymore mines and the Lieutenant sent a patrol to scout the area. They came back reporting nothing unusual. They waited on full alert, watching and listening intently, but the VC battalion never showed. After several hours another patrol was sent out and they weren't gone 5 minutes before they rushed back waving hands full of Viet Cong leaflets. Before they'd even gone 50 meters, they found them scattered around on the ground and in the bushes. They'd even mounted one on a forked stick and stuck it right in the middle of the trail so we couldn't miss it. And, they'd done that in broad daylight and while the unit was on full alert. That phantom VC battalion was still out there somewhere.
The unit decided caution was the better part of valor and un-assed the area the following morning. They still wonder how a battalion could get up practically in their wire and leave propaganda leaflets without being seen.
Another Viet Cong leaflet with G.I.s as a title. I chose this leaflet because it shows a little knowledge of GI speak. The leaflet mentions DEROS three times and I was surprised that they knew the word, an abbreviation of Date Eligible for Return From Overseas. Almost every soldier knew his dates, when his tour was almost over and he was short, and the date he could return home. How odd that the Viet Cong should use that term three times in one leaflet. This leaflet was found by Sergeant (E-5) Dennis Moore, an 11B infantryman of the Roadrunner platoon, 1st of the 22nd, 4th Infantry Division. He found the leaflet sometime in 1969-1970. Note that the VC mention the 4th Division in their propaganda text so this should be considered a tactical leaflet, one aimed at the enemy directly in front of you and not a strategic leaflet that uses a more general propaganda.
A POEM FROM AN AMERICAN GI OF THE 4TH INF DIVISION
Since we mention the 4th Division and GIs above, here is a leaflet that mentions a 4th Division soldier. He is a poet and since this is Viet Cong propaganda he is confused and does not understand why he is at war. It is also racial propaganda since it mentions a 1969 peace rally.
Korean Officers and Soldiers
There were Korean military units helping the South Vietnamese, and the Viet Cong knew it. Here they print a leaflet aimed at the Koreans. It was found at a construction site of a new air base at Phu Cat on 17 June 1966. Other such leaflets were also found by the Koreans. The 10,000-foot landing strip was being built by the Koreans and protected by the Republic of Korea Capital Division. An American critique of the leaflet points out that the Koreans dont feel themselves racially allied to the Vietnamese, they would be insulted by an attack on their leader Park Chung Hee, and the Viet Cong would have no way to repatriate them. Some of the text of this leaflet is:
Vietnamese people are the same as Korean people. Korean soldiers and officers are also Asian. Asians dont kill Asians Object to the revolutionary government of Park Chung Hee Do not take part in operations to kill Vietnamese, burn homes, sabotage and attack villages. Go back home. The liberation movement forces in South Vietnam have a policy to return you to your home to be together with your families.
I should add that it could have been North Korean PSYOP troops that wrote this leaflet and others like it. The 1968 Vietnamese Ministry of Defense history of the Vietnam War, mentions North Korean PSYOP:
Our enemy proselyting service coordinated with an operational cell from the Central Committee of the Korean Workers Party to launch an ideological offensive aimed at South Korean troops. During the period 1966-67, in accordance with an agreement between the Central Committee of our Party and the Central Committee of the Korean Labor Party, our North Korean allies sent a cadre team to Region V to proselytize South Korean soldiers.
In addition, a 2010 article published in Peoples Army mentioned the presence in North Vietnam of a team of North Korean specialists who helped to produce North Vietnamese Korean-language propaganda broadcasts directed against South Korean troops fighting in South Vietnam.
North Korean intelligence/psychological warfare specialists were still operating in South Vietnam as late as 1971.
North Korea sent a team to Vietnam to help in the propaganda effort against the South Korean soldiers aiding the Vietnamese. A 20 October 1969 confidential report from the U.S. 4th Infantry Division reports capturing 23 audio tapes that were made at the Second Congress of Outstanding Emulators held in September 1969. To the Communist, an “emulator” was one that copied and acted just as some political or military hero had. They had been the property of the North Korean Military Proselyting Group in Bihn Dinh Province. The tapes were on many subjects such as: the achievements of postal transportation and communications cadre, propaganda and music, Hanoi Radio stations, female cadre distributing propaganda leaflets and acting as guides for combat units, a female military Proselyting member who convinced two South Vietnamese soldiers to defect, and many more. A letter from North Korea was found to the unit that promised a new type of propaganda leaflet in the climaxing phase of the battle. There were also 30 photographs depicting the fighters moving through the bush armed with pistols and rifles, resting, or getting a haircut. Three females were among the photographs, all armed with pistols. The North Korean Military Proselyting Group operated in Binh Dinh Province for eight months.
A May 1968 Military Assistance Command Vietnam J2 (Intelligence document) adds:
The VC recently distributed several propaganda leaflets in Da Nang City. Although most of the leaflets contained the usual anti-Government of Vietnam and United States propaganda, the Korean forces in Vietnam were the object of the enemy's most severe propaganda. One leaflet attempted to influence RVN servicemen to cease all support of the Thieu-Ky government and to support the "Liberation Forces" by citing alleged atrocities inflicted by South Korean troops on the families of servicemen.
I have seen leaflets in English, Vietnamese and Korean. I have seen leaflets that targeted Hispanics and Blacks. This is one the first I have seen that targeted Filipinos working with the Americans. The back of the leaflet has the same message in Vietnamese.
250,000 Expeditionary French
I added this leaflet to drive home the point that genuine Viet Cong leaflets were often printed from hand-carved wood or rubber blocks, always on cheap paper and generally did not last long in the tropical climate of
Southeast Asia. Compare this leaflet to all the fancy full-color fakes on perfect paper or cardboard for sale today. The language is also interesting. They seldom got it right. This leaflet says:
250,000 expeditionary French corpses were routed here. Dont follow their footsteps!
Dont massacre innocent children, weak women!
Stop terrorist raids, massacre, plunder, house burning and wemen raping.
Dont sow death and destruction then you will not be given any harm.
I assume they meant to say that 250,000 French soldiers were routed here, or 250,000 corpses were left here. They managed somehow to imply that they had routed the corpses. They misspelled woman on the back as wemen. Finally, instead of saying you will not be harmed, they say you will not be given any harm. This is a perfect example of a guerrilla band in the bush trying to produce an English-language leaflet.
Notice also the comments added by the American troops that found the leaflet and a second comment perhaps from their officer or S2. Some of the (edited) comments are:
Three Viet Cong killed in action.
soldier killed in action. United States
Other comments tell the date the leaflet was found, the general vicinity, the unit, and point out that the leaflet was found lying beside road.
A veteran from the 199th Light Infantry Brigade said after perusing this leaflet:
Sir Charles tried to scare us with those things in the 199th Area of Operations. It didn't work. Then again, I'm not sure how much good the Chieu Hoi pamphlets that we dropped on them did either. It always freaked me out to walk thru an area where those Chieu Hoi pamphlets were littering the ground.It kind of made you think that maybe it was Charlie's country.Of course, it usually was. I found it kind of hard to accept a Chieu Hoi after he had run out of ammo, defected, and your buddy was dead.
However, we did have an outstanding Kit Carson scout and that was where we got him. He would use his Viet Cong sapper skills to come thru our perimeter at the firebase and it was downright scary to watch.
There were a number of Viet Cong leaflets addressed to American Servicemen. This one with red text is interesting because it accuses Americans of atrocities. Some of the text is:
Dont fire at and spray suffocating gas into our peoples air and cannon shelters. Dont destroy crop, kill domestic animals and plunder our peoples property. Repression, terrorism, massacre, house burning, woman raping are not the democratic Americans ideals. Stop spraying noxious chemicals in Vietnam.
The leaflet is signed on the back by the South Vietnam National Front for Liberation and has additional text:
Stop the war of aggression in South Vietnam! bloods of American and Vietnam youth have been shed too much. Peace in South Vietnam and repatriation for all U.S. Troops!
A second South Vietnam National Front for Liberation leaflet uses the same title but has a longer message in black ink. Some of the text is:
Show yourselves worthy children of the great American people: Act courageously as your conscience and justice loving spirit tell you to do. Demand your immediate repatriation to enjoy the sweetness at being at home again.
If Johnson, McNamara and the like want war, tell them to go to South Vietnam by themselves. They will know what a guerillas blow is like...
This version of the American Servicemen leaflet from the Quangnam National Front for Liberation was found in 1970 and has the following text:
American service men!
Intellectuals, students and U.S. progressive people all over the United States have no desire to support this war. They don't want their boys dead uselessly as 35,000 U.S. boys have laid down their lives in Vietnam for the selfish interests of Nixon. The have absolutely condemned the Nixon's war and demanded an end to this war, Repatriation of all U.S. troops.
As being the soldiers in the Vietnam battlefield why can yhou help being forced to get killed in this dirty war of Nixon?
There are at least three varieties of a leaflet with the same title and the text starting:
Why are your bloods shed too much in South Vietnam.
This leaflet is fairly well written and quotes a Congressman Koch who attacked President Nixon about the waste of American lives and money.
Sometimes instead of American Servicemen a South Vietnam National Front for Liberation leaflet would be addressed to US Servicemen. One such leaflet tells the finders that their real enemy is President Johnson and General Westmoreland who have sent them to Vietnam to die to make profits for American capitalists.
American Servicemen in South Vietnam
This is another common title for Viet Cong leaflets. The language is pretty strong though I doubt any American soldier would admit to the crimes stated by the enemy:
Stop terrorist raids, massacre, plunder, house burning and woman raping! Dont massacre innocent children, weak women!
The back goes on to mention the Korean War and 140,000 American lives lost and the suffering of tens of thousands of American mothers. The letter is signed by The South Vietnam Liberation National Front.
AMERICAN SERVICEMEN IN
I could add another dozen such all-text leaflets to this article but I think I will stop with this piece taken from the body of a Viet Cong guerrilla on 1 September 1966. The leaflet is signed by the
Liberation National Front and uses Christmas as a theme to demoralize American troops and make them long for home. Some of the poorly written text is: South Vietnam
Why you cant enjoy Christmas eve besides your loved ones at home?
U.S.government has been waging the aggressive war in which against Amrican interests. You are forced to commit these atrocious transgressions: in the daily raids women, children are killed: poison gas is used to massacre honest people; villages are burnt; churches are destroyed .in that situation how can Vietnamese people have a happy Christmas? south Vietnam
There are handwritten comments on the back of this leaflet by the unit who discovered it. Lieutenant Groom states that it was found on the body of a dead Viet Cong on 1 September 1966, near map coordinate YA 850130, by the 1st Psywar Intelligence team.
To American servicemen in South Vietnam
The leaflet from the South Vietnam National Front for Liberation is printed on both sides. It mentions the many anti-war demonstrations in the United States on the front. The back demands that if Johnson and McNamara want a war, let them go to Vietnam and they will quickly see what war is really like.
This South Vietnam Liberation Army folded leaflet has four sides. The front depicts an anti-war demonstration in the United States. The 3-page propaganda text says that the Americans have been tricked into fighting a war of aggression. It claims that the Americans have used poison gas and noxious chemicals to kill crops. It claims that the Americans are now hated more than Hitler was. It ends with the usual request that the soldiers stop murdering and burning and demand peace and return home.
Another NLF leaflet reported that blacks were given all the dirty and dangerous jobs. The leaflet went so far to suggest that black GIs refuse to fight and surrender so that they could be sent home. The leaflet reads in part:
In combat in Vietnam you are forced to:
- Go first
- Withdraw last
- Stay in the outer ring
- Do the hardest and the most dangerous jobs!
In Vietnam casualty rates for blacks are much higher than whites!
In the states you are called niggers! The Vietnamese people are not your enemy!
Refuse to obey all combat orders! Sit on the fence! Refuse to interfere in the internal affairs of your Vietnamese brothers! Refuse to perpetuate crimes against them! When under attack, lay down your weapons, let yourselves be captured: you will be taken alive and will eventually be allowed to return home.
Cross over to the S.V.N.F.L.: youll be warmly welcomed and receive all possible help to return to the United States or seek asylum in a foreign country. Demand to be sent home immediately! Your true struggle is in the United States.
A 21 March 1970 report from Marine Combined Action Platoon (CAP) 4-1-1 tells of a running gunfight with a number of Viet Cong. It ends:
The Patrol returned to the Area of Operations and conducted a sweep of the area, producing one B-40 rocket and propaganda leaflets on racism.
We cannot determine which of the Viet Cong leaflets with a theme of racism was found, but it could well have been one of the above.
"...we put you right up front".
How Democracy Operates
Another NLF leaflet featured the myth that minority troops were dying in greater numbers than their white comrades did. The leaflet has a cartoon on the front where a staff sergeant says to his assembled troops:
Back home in the States, negroes are at the end of the line, but here in Vietnam it's different - we put you right up front.
False claims are made on the back that:
11 percent of the U.S. population are Negroes. 30 percent of the G.I.s in Vietnam are Negroes. 40% of G.I. deaths in Vietnam are Negroes.
In reality, white troops died at a slightly higher percentage than in the general population.
BLACK G.I. IN THE U.S. ARMY
Courtesy Major Hammond Salley
This leaflet speaks for itself. It tells the finder that blacks in the U.S.A are being abused, oppressed, exploited, manhandled, and murdered by racist authorities. There is a long propaganda text on both the front and back.
American Negro Soldiers!
This is another short leaflet from the South Vietnam National Liberation Front that implies that the war of the Guerrillas from the north is identical to the war being fought against black Americans at home. It asks black American soldiers to join with the North Vietnamese to fight oppression.
Letter of a Colored P.O.W.
Bobby L. Johnson after his Release
This folded leaflet depicts U.S. soldier Bobby Louis Johnson and three pages of English text. The back of the leaflet has the same text but in Vietnamese. We can see from his identification number that he was drafted and is a Specialist Four which is the same as a Corporal. He was a heavy truck driver for the 62nd Truck Company. His grammar is weak and he does not capitalize many words. Johnson and Burt Kinzel were riding in a truck when they were ambushed. They stopped and hid in a mud hut as the enemy was approaching from all sides. Kinzel ran and escaped the Viet Cong. Johnson was captured and held until 1973. He spent 1,633 days in captivity. Although his name appears on this leaflet, he was presented with a Bronze Star at the end of the war for putting his own life in danger to save the life of an Army Colonel while a prisoner. The text is:
LETTER OF A COLORED P.O.W. TO COLORED G.IS IN S.V.N.
Colored GIs in south vietnam
I am Bobby L. Johnson US67152899 E-4 62TC 7th BN 48th groups
I am a colored man in detroit michigan. I was captured by the liberation army on aug 25, 1968. When I was in the convoy going from Cu Chi to tay ninh. Lucky to be a pow, alive and aware of the truth I think it is necessary to write you a letter.
Since I was captured I have been treated so good and given enough to eat and drink. Ive never been tortured nor mistreated. It is completely different from what the US Administration says. You know that in the states we colored men are badly treated by the white Administration Martin Luther King was trying to help our people but as you know he was killed. Our colored youth are sent to south vietnam, forced to burn down home and burn their food and kill little babies and their mothers. You know that colored GI s killed in action are most than white. They work harder but make less money. Johnson and the white administration make much money. The enemy of the colored is not the Vietnamese peoples but the racists at home. We dont have anything here to fight for we should go home to fight racial discrimination and poverty.
To avoid useless death you should: Demand an end to the war. Refuse to go out on operation by every means. When you are in cross fire lay down your arms give yourself up:
Cross over to the national liberation front; you will be alive and sent home to your family
Sept. 30 1968
Bobby L. Johnson
This leaflet can be used as a passport
STATEMENT OF THREE G.Is TAKEN P.O.Ws BY THE L.A.F.
Bobby Johnson appears on three other leaflets, each showing a group of three American prisoners. The first is folded to make four pages. Three pages are in English and one in Vietnamese. The propaganda message is signed by Thomas N. Jones SP4 519422963 86th T.C. 6th BN. 48th G.P, Kenneth R. Gregory Sgt. RA 18708340 352nd T.C. 6th BN. 48th G.P, and Bobby L. Johnson SP4 67152899 62nd T.C. 48th G.P 7th BN.
The Second leaflet is:
LETTER OF 3 US P.O.Ws G.Is IN SOUHT V.N
This leaflet is folded into four pages with the last page being written in Vietnamese. The September 1968 leaflet has a letter signed by Sergeant Kenneth R. Gregory, Specialist 4th Class Thomas N. Jones and Specialist 4th Class Bobby L. Johnson. The letter explains that rather than torture and death, the Viet Cong have treated them very well. It says in part:
We write this letter to you to tell of the treatment of the N.F.L towards us and of our understanding of the war in Vietnam We were captured August 25, 1968 when the convoy we were in was ambushed by the Liberation Army. We had been told by the US army if captured we would be tortured and even Killed. We were and are not! Instead we have received the best of treatment. The reason we are alive now is because we crossed over to the L.A.F. at the first chance we had. We were immediately evacuated from the fight to the rear where we were safe. Then we received clothing, food, water and cigarettes Demand to be sent home and an immediate stop to the unjust and aggressive war in Vietnam waged by the Johnson administration.
Notice that the Viet Cong should have edited this letter a bit more. South is spelled Souht and the men were apparently captured by the National Football League because they write N.F.L rather than N.L.F.
The Third leaflet Depicting the three captives is:
Letter of 3 U.S P.O.Ws to drivers in the U.S army in S.V.N.
The propaganda message is signed by Thomas N. Jones SP4 519422963 86th T.C. 6th BN. 48th G.P, Kenneth R. Gregory Sgt. RA 18708340 352nd T.C. 6th BN. 48th G.P, and Bobby L. Johnson SP4 67152899 62nd T.C. 48th G.P 7th BN.
Thomas N. Jones
Thomas N. Jones is found on at least three different Viet Cong leaflets. He was captured on 25 August 1968 and released on 1 January 1969, spending 4 months as a captive of the Viet Cong. He received good treatment after being shot in both arms. On this leaflet he mentions his good treatment by his captors and says in part:
I am Thomas N. Jones, E4 born on Sept. 19, 1947 in Evansville, Indiana Since my capture I have received good medical treatment from the S.V.N.N.L.F. and the Peoples Liberation Armed Forces I plan to join the peace-loving people of America to protest this unjust war, and to do everything in my power to end this U.S. aggressive war in South Vietnam now .
James W. Brigham
This leaflet is so similar to the one directly above that we can assume it was made by the same Viet Cong unit. It mentions Thomas Jones above, so they were certainly made as a pair. This leaflet features Specialist Four James W. Brigham, who curiously identifies himself as colored. He was captured on 14 September 1968 and released on 20 December 1968. He seems to have received excellent treatment. If we are to believe the Viet Cong, he got a nice glass of warm milk (but apparently no cookies) when first captured. They treated his head wound and gave him the best of medical treatment. He plans to join the peace-loving people of America to protest this unjust war and to do everything in his power to end this U.S. aggressive war in South Vietnam now .
Rallied Man Nolan
SP4 McKinley Nolan
The story of Specialist Four McKinley Nolan is really interesting.He was awarded a Combat Infantry Badge and a Purple Heart before going absent without leave for almost two months, being busted to Private and sent to Long Binh jail. Upon release or escape he apparently deserted on 9 November 1967. It is claimed that he was involved with PX thefts, and beside his American wife, also had a Cambodian common-law wife. All sources seem to indicate that Nolan went over to the Communist Vietnamese. He was a willing collaborator and at one point broadcast propaganda for Radio Hanoi and wrote leaflets that were circulated among American prisoners of war. When American POWs were liberated and sent home, Nolan informed them that he had decided to stay and went with his wife to Cambodia. He is one of just two confirmed American deserters. He worked with the Khmer Rouge for a while, but it is believed that they eventually murdered him sometimes in 1974 or early 1975.
Richard Linnett spent 11 years researching Nolan and actually met with his Vietnamese mentors. He said:
we met with VC proselytizing members who lived with Nolan and they admitted to writing all of Nolans propaganda. They said he could hardly spell. Nolans motives were mixed and confusing. Were still not sure if he defected or simply deserted and was captured and then did the VCs bidding in order to stay alive and get to Battambang, Cambodia, where his Vietnamese/Cambodian girlfriends family lived.
Above we show a four-page leaflet, three pages in English, and the last one a translation in the Vietnamese language. We should note that in Vietnam, to rally was to change sides. It is not an American term. The South Vietnam government always asked the Viet Cong to rally to the national cause. In this case the Viet Cong have used the term Rally Man Nolan to imply that the soldier has voluntarily gone over to the VC. The text is:
RALLIED MAN NOLAN TO 1st AND 25th INFANTRYMEN!
G.I s of the 1st and 25th Inf. Div. My Name McKinley Nolan Corporal Serial Number US64101802 1st Inf. Div.
Im proud to have the pleasure to write and tell you why on November 12, 1967 I crossed over to the South Viet Nam National Libration Front.
After Nearly two years in South Vietnam I see that the war in Vietnam waged by Johnson Government only brings harm to the lives and property of the vietnamese and american people. I do not intend to let you add more crimes on the peace-and freedom loving vietnamese people and try to prevent my friends from dying useless death.
Since I cross over to the South Vietnam National Liberation Front I have received fair treatment physically and spiritually. I have never been forced to do anything against my will.
During my stay in the Liberation Zone I see that the Vietnamese people warmly welcome the american peoples movement against the war of Johnson Government in Viet Nam and fully support the american people in their struggle for freedom and equality
You and I American know very clearly that the US War in Viet Nam is an aggressive one. It is like the british making war on the American people Nearly 200 years ago. The Vietnamese people are not our enemy. Its those who force us to take part in this dirty war.
The Vietnamese people are sure of victory. It is the same as the American defeat of the British for their Independence and Freedom.
To contribute your effort to the American peoples struggle for an early end to the dirty aggressive war to avoid useless death which is disaster to yourself. Your wife and children and you family. You should demand for peace and end to the war! Demand for your home return now! Not fire at or destroy those who rise up to overthrow Thue-Ky puppet clique! Not take part in any operation! If forced to engage in a battle, lay down your arms. Your life will be spared. You can cross over to the SVNNLF you will receive fair treatment and be sent home if you desire.
Another leaflet shows a black man being arrested by a club-bearing white police officer. A picture on the back depicts a black soldier crawling in a swamp. Some of the text on the back is:
The Vietnam is 'a hell hole of racism for the Negroes GIs over and above the usual hell of war' ( Philadelphia Independent).
Your real enemies are those who call you 'Niggers.'
Your genuine struggle is on your native land.
GO HOME NOW AND ALIVE!
What is particularly interesting about this leaflet is that copies were found in 2006 in the Ban Bac ammo dump along the Hoc Chi Minh Trail buried in a pit with other war supplies and ammunition.
Although this is not the leaflet mentioned by retired Master Sergeant Gregory H. Murry in his book Content with my Wages A Sergeants Story - Vietnam, No End to Publishing Co., Austin, Texas, 2013, the message is similar. He says:
One day when we were clearing the sides of Highway 13 I found a red piece of paper on the ground near the road. It was printed in English and the message was aimed at the black soldiers. It asked them why they were fighting and dying in Vietnam when the country that sent them here wouldnt let them enjoy the same rights as the white soldiers. It mentioned the lynchings, bombings and murders that were a regular occurrence in the south during the civil rights struggle that was taking place at this time.
Afro-Americans and Puerto-Ricans!
It was not only the Blacks that the Viet Cong spoke to, but also Puerto Ricans, the Spanish speaking Americans that are natural-born citizens of the United States. This leaflet advises both the Blacks and Puerto Ricans to quit the war in Vietnam because their own people are being killed by President Johnsons racist administration back in the United States. The leaflet is in English on the front, Vietnamese on the back.
A November 1967 Military Assistance Command Vietnam J2 (Intelligence document) adds:
U.S. and Negro and Puerto Rican personnel were the object of nine anti-U.S. propaganda leaflets recently discovered in III Combat Tactical Zone. The primitive type leaflets were based on recent racial strife in the U.S. and pictured the real enemy as the "U.S. Racist Authorities" and "U.S. imperialists." A VC plan for the proselyting of U. S. servicemen in the Viet Cong Tri Thieu Sub-Region (I CTZ) was outlined in Military Proselyting Plan #171, prepared dated 6 September 1967. The problems of the language barrier and lack of understanding of U.S. customs were mentioned, but it was noted that assistance could be obtained using interpreters and individuals whose jobs allowed frequent contact with U.S. soldiers. Some of the favorable factors mentioned were the homesickness of U.S soldiers, their fear of death, racial problems, and the righteousness of the VC cause.
You Go In....You Come Out
What's In Washington's War for You?
Another NLF leaflet claimed that the war in Vietnam was for profit. There was a myth during the war that Vietnam was floating on a sea of oil and that was why the United States had chose to take part. Other rumors claimed that LBJ and his wife were getting rich from government contracts. A third rumor was that the
United Stateswas stripping of zinc. These rumors were all nonsense, but at the time many people were willing to believe them. The leaflet depicts an American patrol in the bush at the left and the text "You go in," while at the right coffins are depicted draped with the American flag and the text "You come out." The back of the leaflet explains what the war is all about: Vietnam
For Herbert Fuller of New York (with 10 million invested in a sugar mill at Tuy Hoa, South Vietnam) the answer is simple: 'I'm in it for the money," he says. Gloating over your corpse, he adds: "Once you've cleared the land, we'll get back our investment in two years."
Don't Support A Government without Supporters
Another popular theme of the leaflets was that Vietnam was a civil war and the people should be allowed to settle their differences as had been done in the American Civil War. One such leaflet depicted an anti-war demonstration with people holding signs such as Stop the killing. The text on the front is:
Demand the Nixon administration immediately end its war of aggression in Vietnam without posing any condition whatsoever. Demand immediate withdrawal of all U.S. troops and troops of other foreign countries in the U.S. camp. Let the South Vietnamese people settle their own affairs.
There is a long message on the back. Much of the message attacks the legitimacy of the government and its leaders, and that is a direct attack on the current leader:
You probably remember what the dictator Nguyen Cao Ky said at a press conference on June 21, 1965: "I have only one idol, Adolph Hitler."
Other NLF leaflets simply wanted the Americans out and used a theme of sadness and homesickness. One shows an anti-war demonstration on the leaflet front. An American allegedly wrote the text on the back:
COMIN HOME SOON. Theres a mother in California, whose heart is aching now. Theres a girl in Indiana who feels the same somehow. Theres a guy far away at a place they call Da Nang, thats the cause of all this pain.
Flag draped coffins
The photo in the above leaflet shows a number of flag draped coffins being loaded onto planes for transport back home. The text on the reverse warned thatL
Escalators go up or down
But Johnsons escalation can only take you one way
into a coffin of rough pine (if they can find your remains).
I have seen this leaflet in two versions. One on a photographic paper as above, and one on a pulp paper with the image in green.
Another colorful leaflet that mentions President Johnson depicts a question mark and the title:
Is President Johnson toying with
Aren't You Sick Too?
Another leaflet showed a group of soldier on the front with the text:
Youre not the only one whos sick of this war.
Private David Carnevale allegedly wrote the letter on the back of the leaflet. He was killed in action just three days later, according to the NLF. Some of his comments are:
I feel as if I were 100 years old. My luck is running out. Please do what you can for me. Dad, I dont want to die! Please get me out of here!
In Danang Hell
This remarkable folded leaflet has four pages of propaganda. The front shows a photo of an American GI suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from the magazine Paris Match. The text goes on to tell of the 3rd Marine Division and Army 1st Infantry Division in recent battles. Page two is entitled Its a Hell of a Life, and describes life inside the base camp; tropical heat, stress and disease. Outside the base, it warns of Mosquitoes, ants, leeches, spike traps, mines, sniper fire and hand grenades. On page three, the Viet Cong claim to have killed 139 Marines on the night of 27 May 1965. Another 95 Marines were allegedly killed on 5 June 1965. On 30 June 1965, the Viet Cong brag of a great victory at Danang Airbase, inflicting 139 casualties on U.S. troops. The back of the leaflet depicts a mother near her sons casket. The leaflet asks in part. Why should you die in South Vietnam? The leaflet is signed by the South Vietnam National Front for Liberation.
The image of the mother with coffin above is also found on the back of a leaflet entitled American Servicemen in South Vietnam. Some of the text is:
Try to avoid your families such grief as that has fallen to this mother, Carmen Salcido.
He Lie Dead
Courtesy Major Hammond Salley
This Viet Cong leaflet seems to show a dead GI at the top, either covered or in a body bag. The printing is so crude that I cannot see it clearly. Once again the VC show their lack of English grammar. The text says in part:
He lie dead in Vietnam for whom?
For corrupt and power-hungry South Vietnamese leaders, whose own people do not support them.
Some of the text on the back is:
Tell President Johnson: We want to be brought home now alive! Withdraw U.S. troops from South Vietnam and let the Vietnamese settle their own affairs themselves!
The South Vietnam Liberation Army.
The Key of Peace
You will notice that several of the leaflets in this article are blue. The Viet Cong seemed to experiment a bit with color, but most of the leaflets were printed under conditions where that was simply impossible. This leaflet depicts a hand holding a set of keys and the text:
The Key of Peace in South Vietnam:
US Troops out of SVN!
I suspect that first line should be the key to peace The back of the leaflet has a message in English and Vietnamese telling the U.S how to get out of the war immediately by withdrawing its troops and cease meddling in Vietnamese affairs.
MY OPINIONS ON THE VIETNAM WAR
A second leaflet by the South Vietnam Liberation Army is a tri-fold leaflet that opens to show six pages. The cover is entitled My Opinions on the Vietnam War and appears to be a booklet written by Captain W. F. Eisenbraun, an advisor to the 1st Battalion, 51st Infantry. There is an interesting photograph of an anti-War rally on the back and four pages of text. Some of the text is:
There is a war in Vietnam because of the aggressive policy of the U.S. Government The United States attempts to turn South Vietnam into U.S. military base. The U.S. Government has joined hands with the Saigon lackeys in using armed force to suppress the just struggle of the South Vietnamese people for freedom and independence .
Will they still be with you next Mothers Day?
Specialist Fourth Class William Brewer picked up this leaflet about 1969 while a member of the 4th Infantry Division. He carried it in his wallet during his entire tour in Vietnam. It depicts two children on the front and asks in part:
Will they still be with you next Mothers Day?
and in the years to come?
Or will they be sacrificed for the growing war in Asia?
The back depicts an anti-war demonstration and the text with one noticeable spelling error:
Son Come back home!
Dont make me saffer thinking you can die without
Glory in this dirty war.
Our Resounding Victories
The brochure is folded into eight pages. It bears one illustration which seems to be of
troops carrying casualties to a helicopter. The text inside is a dairy of battles in which the Viet Cong claims that the U.S. forces were soundly defeated. The brochure is signed by the Liberation Army. An example is: U.S.
June 18 26, 1966
U.S.troops of the 101st Division of paratroopers and the First Air Mobile Cavalry Division were killed or wounded by the Liberation Army at Tuy An ( ). Phu Yen Province
A Second Our Resounding Victories Brochure in Red
The same 8-page booklet with the same title is also found in red. However, this version has no photographs but instead is all text starting with the title Armymen Belonging to US Expeditionary Forces in South Vietnam and ending with the Viet Cong flag. I show the last page with flag above.
The South Vietnamese People are bound to win
The Viet Cong booklet in English depicts the charging mass of Vietnamese people attacking forward, surely to defeat the United States and the Government of South Vietnam.
Anti-War Activist Bertrand Russell
This 16-page booklet has the first eight pages in English, the last eight pages in Vietnamese. Bertrand Arthur William Russell (1872 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, essayist and social critic best known for his work in mathematical logic and analytic philosophy. In 1920, Russell paid a short visit to Russia to study the conditions of Bolshevism on the spot. In the autumn of the same year he went to China to lecture on philosophy at the Peking University. In 1958 he became the founding President of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. In 1961 he was imprisoned for one week in connection with anti-nuclear protests and in 1963 he established the Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation. During his life due to his political activities he was fired from Trinity College, Cambridge, and the City College of New York.
Letter of the SVNNFL to U.S. Servicemen
This 15-page booklet dated 20 December 1965 tells American troops that they are fighting a dirty, illegal war serving the interests of American monopoly capitalists. It compares U.S. actions in Vietnam to British action in colonial America. It ends by asking American troops to oppose the war and it claims the National Liberation Front has released two prisoners in keeping with its policy of leniency. They are named as regular army soldiers Claude McClure and George Edward Smith.
I decided to add this Viet Cong two-fold (six-page) booklet because of the photograph on the cover. Notice the expression on the lead black soldier's face. His look is of absolute terror. The Communists probably got this photo from some American newspaper and made great use of it on this leaflet. The entire booklet is in blue with some touches of red to highlight the images. On the back of the booklet is a picture of a United States Air Force fighter aircraft which was apparently shot down in May 1965. The text on the cover is:
On 1 February 1966 an American unit from the 1st Air Cavalry Division that was conducting a sweep operation in northern Bong Son District, Binh Dinh Province, was attacked by Liberation Army forces. The terrified soldiers turned around and ran for their lives.
WHO IS DEFEATING WHOM IN SOUTH VIETNAM?
Specialist Ronni Guyer was in the 1st Bong Son Valley Offensive Operation in 1966 as a member of the 1 Battalion, 7th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division. He told me:
This News Photo was taken by the Associated Press I believe. Early on, some of our Sky Troopers raced under fire towards extracting HUEY Helicopters. The photograph was seen around the World.
The people of Viet Nam will triumph!
We should note that the Communist Chinese printed hundreds of propaganda magazines, postcards, and posters depicting the brave Viet Cong and North Vietnamese struggle against the evil South Vietnamese and Americans. That same photo of a black soldier running in panic is found in this highly-illustrated 54-page magazine along with many photographs of American bodies, American citizens demanding peace, captured GIs, American fighters in flames, Vietnamese youth holding rifles and of course, Ho Chi Minh. The magazine is written in Chinese and I dont know if it was printed for Chinese living in Vietnam or brought south by a Chinese advisor or volunteer. At any rate, it was found in Vietnam by American troops and forwarded to JUSPAO where it was filed in their archives. This magazine is volume four of a series with the title:
The people of Viet Nam will triumph! U.S. aggressors will be defeated!
The caption of the photograph in the Chinese magazine is:
Under the heavy blow of the Southern Liberation Armed Forces of Vietnam, the US invading army fled in embarrassment and failed. No matter how many more troops the US imperialists increase, and what kind of war "escalation" they make, they will never escape their destiny of being passively beaten on the battlefield in Vietnam and they will surely fail.
All American captured
The Viet Cong mention captured American soldiers and how they will be treated in many of their propaganda leaflets. This small leaflet specifies all of the rights the American who surrenders to the Viet Cong will have.
Bill for Special Fair Treatment
In this leaflet the Viet Cong offer lenient and humane treatment to anyone going over to their side. What is interesting and not often seen is the space at the bottom for the soldier to write his familys name and address so they can be notified if he dies. The back of the leaflet bears the same exact message but written in the Vietnamese language. Andrew Chernak of Charlie Company, 4/12th of the 199th Light Infantry Battalion found this leaflet in a bunker complex about November 1969.
...Lenient and Humane Treatment…
The Viet Cong seems to have liked this phrase. I find it on three other leaflets in this study. This two-side South Vietnam N.F.L. leaflet makes life look quite comfortable in a Viet Cong prison camp. The back has short messages signed by Claude D. McClure-Ra, Floyd J. Thompson, and Richard G. Burgess.
A January 1968 Military Assistance Command Vietnam J2 (Intelligence document) adds:
There has also been increased use of VC propaganda leaflets in Quang Nam Province directed toward US Negro military personnel. The Negroes are being urged to oppose being sent to Vietnam, to refuse to fight in Vietnam, and to demand to be sent home to participate in the ''Afro-American Struggle" in the U.S. One leaflet stated that if they crossed over to North Vietnam, they would be helped to return home "as was Claude McClure, RA14703075, the Negro sergeant who was released not long ago."
Dont Worry about your Fate!
On the subject of how American captives will be treated by the Viet Cong, this leaflet seems to offer a very legal and logical system. Of course, this did not turn out to be exactly how it worked in reality. The leaflet is printed in English on the front, Vietnamese on the back. It is coded M2 767.
Oddly, three decades later in Operation Desert Storm the Americans produced a similar card to be given to Iraqi POWs. The card handed to Iraqis prisoners to explain their situation. The card is printed in Arabic on one side and English on the other. The text is:
You are a prisoner of war. You will not be hurt or injured unless you try to escape. You must remain quiet and do what you are told. You will be respected and treated fairly. You will be searched. You may be temporarily deprived of your personal property, but it will be returned to you.
Another terribly-written all-text VC leaflet is signed by the Programme Politique of the South Nation Force Liberation and mentions surrender and says in English on one side and Vietnamese on the other:
Through the Fronts lenient policy behaves with surrenders, U.S. prisoners, and satellites of the U.S. For your part surrender of Yankees and satellites troops. The Front are very kind. It there are on conditional, you will be soon arrange your coming back home
The Viet Cong produced a number of English-language propaganda brochures. Two of them are; Antiwar Demonstrations and Solidarity with Vietnam Grows in the United States, and
Imperialists Number 1 Enemy to the progressive Peace-loving Peoples Throughout the World. U.S.
Patriotic Viet Cong Booklets
There were also a large number of patriotic Viet Cong booklets prepared for the Communist Vietnamese to motivate them to fight on and to educate the South Vietnamese on the policies of the North. We depict two that were captured in the
MekongDelta in 1968. The first booklet has 18 pages, the second one 30 pages.
The first booklet (all in black) says on the cover:
Big Victory from Citizens and Soldiers of North and
. South Vietnam
(Study Document for Liberation Members; for guerilla members for the purpose of public propaganda)
Bureau of Information Culture Education
Northwest Saigon- Cho Lon - Gia Dinh
The second booklet with the red text says on the cover:
Study Document for the Liberation Force for
37 Rules to Remember
Political Bureau F K II
The F is code for division; the K for Region and the II is Corps.
This bi-fold leaflet has four photographs on one side; a cemetery, a downed American aircraft, flag-draped coffins and war protestors. The other side is all text, signed by the South Vietnam National Liberation National Front. There are some grammatical errors. It says in part:
AMERICAN SERVICEMEN IN
! SOUTH VIETNAM
In November 1962, ex-President Eisenhower admitted that after years of fight in
South Vietnam, the United Stateshas realized that the wars carried in Asia by the expeditionary forces will never be victorious. U.S.
In December 1962, the late President Kennedy also said that the anti-guerrilla war in
South Vietnamis a hard thing and the are engaged in a tunnel the end of which cannot be seen. United States
Dont you ever think over and ask yourselves
This leaflet depicts a GI thinking about the war and wondering if it is worthwhile. One interesting word is Fatherland, used by the Germans to some extent, but hardly ever by Americans. This is a folded leaflet and inside and on the back is further anti-war propaganda text attacking the Saigon government and Johnson and McNamara in both English and Vietnamese. Some of the comments are:
The Saigon puppet-junta is thoroughly rotten. It is abhorred by the entire Vietnamese people. Its army, morally disarmed is seriously disintegrating.
The Liberation fighters are everywhere and nowhere. No place, even the heart of Saigon, may be a sanctuary for you! You may be killed anytime, day or night, rain or shine. Like your shadow, death is following you everywhere.
Taking part in the Johnson McNamara war of aggression in SVN is a shame for American genuine citizens.
We have seen the name McNamara mentioned about a dozen times in this article. The North Vietnamese liked using him as a target. This leaflet was found by Second Class Petty Officer Steve Beers, Construction Battalion Maintenance Unit (SeaBees) 301, Detachment Bravo, Khe Sahn, the Republic of Vietnam. It was delivered by an enemy artillery shell burst in Khe Sahn on 27 March 1968. The leaflet ridicules McNamara by pointing out his optimistic statements from 1963 to 1966. It goes on to claim that more Americans have been wounded or killed each year. The last line on the back of this leaflet is interesting and clearly aimed at a Vietnamese who might find this leaflet. Without saying so, it asks that the propaganda leaflet be given to any American soldier. The text is Vietnamese is:
Leaflet for American Troops
What did they tell you?
This leaflet seems very similar to the McNamara one above. It seems to be a bit later going into 1967 and with much higher casualty numbers. It could have been written by the same Communist propagandist.
This one has the additional South Vietnam N.L.F.