PSYOP AGAINST THE ISLAMIC STATE

SGM Herbert A. Friedman (Ret.)

Note: Text and/or images from this article have been used with permission by a Military Information Operations unit in Northern Iraq for a report on what the Peshmerga are doing in the IO/MISO sphere.

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Symbol of Operation Inherent Resolve – the Anti-ISIS Coalition

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Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) Flag

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In the name of Allah the most merciful

Helicopters dropped leaflets over Mosul on 20 August 2014, urging the population to stand against ISIS and support Iraqi security forces. Here is a full translation of the leaflet:

In the name of Allah the most merciful

You will surely be tested in your possessions and in yourselves. And you will surely hear from those who were given the Scripture before you and from those who associate others with Allah much abuse. But if you are patient and fear Allah - indeed, that is of the matters [worthy] of determination.

Truthful is the great Allah

To our people of Mosul the Hadbaa'

To the dear people of Mosul the Hadbaa'

Iraq and all of you, the people of the great Mosul, have been plagued by an ignorant and penitential tide and by gangs that gathered from all corners of the world to invade your city. They planted the seeds of destroying your sanctities, widening the schism between you, destroying your heritage, looting your resources, and starving your children with an outside support that is now clear to everyone.

The time has come, oh true Iraqis, that we all stand together on the land of your immaculate city one hand against this suspicious tide, we cut its roots, and make our land graveyard for those infidels.

God Bless, God is Our Best Ally
Iraqi Ministry of Defense

ISIS captured Mosul on June 10 and immediately began enforcing Sharia law, destroying churches and causing all Assyrian Christian residents to flee the city.

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Our last warning

The Syrian Arab Army dropped leaflets on ISIS and other rebel-held groups in December 2014. This all-text leaflet says:

Our last warning:

The decision to end terror and restore security is taken. Our next strikes will be bigger and harder, we have enough power to end terror on the entire planet.

We advise you to drop your weapons and surrender yourself.

The Syrian Arab Army forces.

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Mixed Syrian Leaflets

Here a selection of Syrian leaflets dropped on enemy forces during December 2014.

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The Inevitable Advance of the Syrian army…

In February 2015, Syrian warplanes dropped leaflets urging enemy forces in the countryside of Quneitra, Daraa and Damascus to surrender themselves before it is "too late." The leaflets asked the units in Dael, Jassem, Sheikh Miskeen, Tafas and Yadodeh areas in the countryside of Daraa to hand over their weapons and communicate with regime's army through gmail at the following address: syriaterroriste@gmail.com.

The leaflets spoke of the "inevitable advance of the Syrian army," requesting residents and enemy fighters to evacuate their villages immediately. The leaflets invited village residents to communicate with the antiterrorism and Special Operations Unit departments through their Skype account: Syria.terroriste. The leaflets stated anti-terrorism specialists were awaiting their communication, and that regime victories in Daraa, Idleb and Hama were thanks to residents of those provinces.

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Syrian Democratic Forces

On 3 February 2016 the Coalition dropped leaflets over the ISIS-occupied city of Raqqa depicting Syrian Democratic Forces (actually Syrian Kurds and Arab, Turkmen and Armenian militias, as well as Free Syrian Army units) chasing ISIS terrorists as women and children cheer. The text is:

Syrian Democratic Forces are killing Daesh terrorists everywhere. Soon they'll do the same thing in Raqqa

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The Democratic forces…

The back of the leaflet depicts an Isis terrorist attacking a frightened family with a knife. Two Syrian Democratic Forces fighters step forward and open fire on the Isis fighter. The text is:

The Democratic forces of Syria are advancing to liberate the city of Raqqa from ISIS.

On 16 March 2015, the first report of a use of propaganda leaflets specifically aimed at the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) also called the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), occurred near Raqqa, Syria, its self-proclaimed capital. An Air Force F-15E Strike Eagle fighter dropped 60,000 of the leaflets in a specialized PDU-5B leaflet-dispenser bomb for the first time in Syria.

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The leaflet is rather dark and realistic, almost photographic in nature. It depicts a line of innocent young volunteers who have flocked to join the Islamic State being fed into a meat grinder by two bloody and villainous-looking adults in a barren room identified as the “DAISH Recruiting Office.” The meat-grinder is also labeled “DAISH;” an Arab acronym for Al-Dawlah Al-Islamiyah fe Al-Iraq wa Al-Sham (the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria). Another sign reads, “Now serving 6001,” and the next recruit in line drops a ticket that says “6001.”

This concept of the enemy throwing fighters into a meat grinder is a common one and variations were used in Korea and Vietnam by U.S. PSYOP troops. Although unverified, it has been reported that this was the first use of PSYOP by American forces against ISIS. There have been some published comments by ISIS volunteers in social media of the way they were treated and the propagandists appear to be attempting to exploit those reported problems. Some of those militants have been reluctant to fight in the city of Kobani, on the border with Turkey, where U.S.-led airstrikes have killed hundreds of fighters.

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Leaflet air drop

On 18 March 2015 Iraqi planes dropped two million leaflets over Mosul urging civilians to collaborate against the Islamic State ahead of a military push. Iraqi Air Force C-130 Hercules aircraft made the drops to “mobilize the people.” U.S. and Iraqi officials have pledged to retake Mosul after it fell to ISIS in June 2014. Making contact with residents inside Mosul has been difficult after ISIS destroyed the city's communications network.

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The generous people of Mosul

The leaflet is addressed to “The generous people of Mosul,” and promised that the city would be liberated soon. Some of the text is:

The day you were waiting for, your liberation, is close. It is time to drive out the infidels of ISIS from your holy land. Your armed forces are close to you, and they are ready to participate with you in defeating ISIS forever. Find their hidden locations [and] record their outrageous actions. Mosul is your city, Iraq is your Iraq.

Point out those who cooperate with them to destroy your ancient civilization. Your brothers in Salahuddin taught them [the Islamic State] a lesson they will never forget, and so will you.

At the time, the Iraqi armed forces were advancing in parts of Anbar, pushing Islamic State militants back in the town of Garma, west of Baghdad, though they remain under pressure in the provincial capital of Ramadi. Security officials raised concerns about the Iraqi forces' capability to hold ground in Sunni areas it seizes. The military relies significantly on Shiite militias, running the risk of alienating the local population.

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Zero Hour

On 17 May 2015 US-led coalition warplanes dropped Syrian-language leaflets on Raqqa that said in part:

Zero hour has become very near

We have killed many of your leaders and countless fighters. We can raid you wherever you are at any time at any place and you have no power to stop us. We will never quit, and you are destined to lose your war. The hour of your destruction has approached and the zero hour has become very near. Your area of control is dwindling and growing smaller daily. We have struck you in the heart of your claimed territory, and we have taken an Emir [Sayyaf] while you could do nothing about it.

The leaflet shows an ISIS soldier about to be cut in half by the moving minutes hand of a large clock labeled "Daesh". This is similar to leaflets dropped by both the Allies and Germans in WWII that depicted a clock and mentioned that it was five minutes to twelve. The concept being that the finder should not be killed in the last moments of a war.

The Emir mentioned above is Abu Sayyaf, who was killed by U.S. Delta Forces on 16 May in a raid into Syria. He helped direct ISIS's illicit oil, gas and financial operations, which are perhaps their main source of revenue. The leaflet was dropped the day after his death.

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To the people of Nainawa

On 3 July 2015 the residents of Mosul woke up to leaflets raining down on them from the sky. The Iraqi Air Force dropped thousands of leaflets on the city that had been controlled by ISIS for over a year. The text of the leaflet is:

In the name of God, the most Gracious, the most Merciful,

To the people of Nainawa, the patient and the ones standing alone so far,

Every step the government is taking towards Mosul, your great city, is putting into account your future, your sacrifices and your holy and utmost precious freedom in its calculation to free you from ISIL, which profane your city a year ago. Your relief now has come to light, and we are in a position where liberation is so close to reality. Your Military forces are getting close, cooperate with them and stay away from ISIL militants with whatever you see fit, to put down in your records that you are the liberators and you are the ones who will role the city and plan its destiny, and you are capable of it.

All victory is by Allah

PS – We advise every citizen of the city to carry a radio on you constantly. Soon Al Mosul FM will start broadcasting to fill you up with important instructions necessary to your safety and to contribute towards your liberation.

ISF – Province of Nainawa
Iraqi Department of Defense

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Syrian Army Safe Conduct Pass

This Syrian leaflet was allegedly dropped over Homs and tells the rebel forces how to approach the Syrian Arab Army checkpoints and how to surrender and be reunited with their families. Text on the front and back is:

The holder of this pass is allowed to cross security forces checkpoints to surrender. The holder of this pass will be well treated and reunited with his family after verifications are conducted.

Your last chance to stay alive is to give up your weapons because there is nothing you can do against the Syrian army. Don’t miss that opportunity, go back to your family and stop fueling hatred around you.

In July 2015, the Syrian Free Press Network stated that Syrian Army forces supported by Hezbollah from Lebanon claimed to have taken back the town of al-Zabadani: The above leaflet was thrown from Syrian Army helicopters inviting terrorists to surrender. The offensive is part of a wider operation launched by Syria and Hezbollah which has reportedly driven militants out of more than 90 percent of the territory previously controlled by them in mountainous Qalamoun region. The highly strategic area, which straddles the Lebanese-Syrian border, was previously used by the al-Nusrah Front militants for transferring weapons and ammunition into Syria, where they have been involved in terrorist activities.

Twitter PSYOP

The Combined Joint Task Force, Operation Inherent Resolve (CJTF-OIR) has an official Twitter account. Several anti-ISIS cartoons have appeared to be re-tweeted to other anti-ISIS followers. It is unknown if these have also been prepared as leaflets.

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Feed Children to the Devil

This image shows ISIS members taking little children, giving them rifles and feeding them to the Devil.

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Doorway to Death

This Twitter image depicts an Arab being offered a door into what appears to be a beautiful palace. On the other side, death and destruction await.

Kurdish Peshmerga (Those who Face Death) Propaganda

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Peshmerga Insignia

The Kurds are an interesting story. They occupy parts of Iraq, Iran and Turkey, and have been persecuted by all of those countries, especially the Turks who attacked and bombed them for years. Saddam Hussein gassed the Kurds on occasion and after Operation Desert Storm the United States rescued many of them under Operation Provide Comfort. Throughout all this they have fought for a homeland and now have one of the stronger armies in the area. They seem to be aggressively carrying a good part of the fight against ISIS which is a surprise considering the other larger nations that are strongly supported by the U.S.

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Don’t feed the Flytrap

Here they produce a propaganda image showing the Arab countries feeding or aiding ISIS, which takes the opportunity to bite the hand that feeds it.

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Bombs for Brains

This Peshmerga image seems to show donkey-eared fools (an insult among the Arabs) having their brains removed and replaced by bombs. They run forward with knives in their hands, looking for people to slaughter or an occupied place to possibly blow themselves up.

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Turkey bombs ISIS and the Kurds

I mentioned above that part of the Kurd alleged homeland encompasses Turkey. As a result, Turkey has been very hesitant to help in the fight against ISIS. On 24 July 2015, Turkish F-16s finally did bomb some ISIS targets in Syria, but they also attacked seven militant Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) targets in Northern Iraq, calling them terrorists. The above Peshmerga image depicts a Turkish aircraft giving a friendly wave to his ISIS friends while he bombs and strafes the Kurds.

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Don’t Poke a Hornet’s Nest

This Peshmerga cartoon shows an ISIS member who has poked a hornet’s nest being chased by an angry swarm. The nest is in the colors of the Kurdish flag; red, white and green with a yellow center, so the meaning of the cartoon is clear. Mess with the Kurds and you will get stung…repeatedly.

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The Kurdish Flag

Iraqi Army anti-ISIS propaganda

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Long live our Lover!

This cartoon depicts an Iraqi Army soldier thrashing a mad-dog ISIS killer who is murdering women and children. In the background, Muslims who support ISIS hold a sign saying:

Long live our lover!

Social Media

Although not exactly propaganda, we know that the war for and against ISIS has been fought on the Internet, especially in social media such as Facebook. However, one must be careful when using such media.

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Some U.S. Air Force Intelligence people from the 361st ISR (Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance) Group were checking social media at Hurlburt Air Force Base, Florida. They spotted a “selfie” with a man standing in front of a building bragging that this was the command and control center for ISIS. They immediately began trying to identify the building and 22 hours later, three Joint Direct Attack Munitions destroyed the enemy headquarters.

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Freedom will Come

On 19 July 2015 the Britain-based Syrian Observatory for Human Rights and the group Raqqa is Being Silently Slaughtered stated that 50,000 leaflets had been dropped noth of Raqqa on 18 July. The Pentagon waited until 23 July to verify the air drop. The leaflets depicted dead ISIS extremists on the ground and their flag turned upside down at the left. Four fighters with the main Kurdish militia, the People's Protection Units, or YPG, walked down a street in the picture. Beneath the soldiers on the road are the words:

Freedom will Come

The leaflet has also been translated as “Freedom is Rising” and “Freedom will Shine.” The latest leaflet drop comes as YPG fighters have been advancing in northern Syria as close as 30 miles north of Raqqa in a campaign called Euphrates Volcano, Nicholas Heras, a researcher with the Middle East Security Program at the Center for a New American Security adds:

The message that this leaflet sends is not at all ambiguous: ISIS is demonic, an army straight out of hell, and that the soldiers sent to vanquish it will succeed and will do so marching with the dawn of righteousness at their backs. The light of the dawn, which vanquishes the darkness of ISIS’ rule, also has an overtone that the soldiers defeating ISIS are the ones who are holy, not ISIS, and that they are doing heavenly work.

Allegedly, the July 18 leaflet drop is the fourth such propaganda mission since March. The military has declined to release estimates on the effectiveness of the leaflets except to say they believe the drops have had a positive effect.

British researcher Lee Richards told me:

A few months back I asked a United States Army press officer if he could assist with getting examples of leaflets and broadcasts addressed to ISIS. I received a firm “No” in reply. A pattern seems to be emerging; leaflets get mentioned online or in social media by those in-country, followed later with by an official confirmation.

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Truth or Disinformation – the ISIS Suicide Chickens

This story is so bizarre that I hesitate to mention it. The July 2015 story comes from a legitimate news source, Khaama Press of the Afghan News Agency. It was forwarded by a USAF officer stationed in Afghanistan. It says that due to the US bombing of supply lines and the difficulty in finding heavy vehicles for terrorist acts, ISIS has begun putting suicide vests on chickens and goats which are then allowed to roam freely into populated areas where they are electronically exploded. I find this story extremely hard to believe, but the reader has the right to make a decision about whether or not this is true. The news article says in part:b

According to reports, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) terrorist group militants have started using chickens as mobile improvised explosive devices in and around the city of Fallujah. In the meantime, reports also emerged recently suggesting the terror group strapping IEDS to a goat that was sent into a Kurdish base in the Syrian city of Kobane.

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Special Forces Insignia

On 16 September 2015, the head of the US military's Central Command General Lloyd Austin reportedly told a Senate committee that US Special Operations Forces are engaged with YPG Kurdish forces in Syria. Austin said that the special operations team was there to advise and assist and that they were not engaged in any combat operations. Kurdish fighters in the People's Protection Units (YPG) in northern Syria have been at the forefront of the fight against ISIS and now autonomously control a vast swathe of territory captured from the group and Syrian government.

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Ayman al-Zawahiri

It is hard to tell whether this is good or bad news, and one wonders if “the enemy or your enemy is your friend” as so often said. In September 2015 Ayman al-Zawahiri, current head of the al Qaida terrorist group that sponsored the 9/11 attacks that killed nearly 3,000 Americans, accused ISIS top leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi of “sedition” and insisted the Iraqi terrorist was not the leader of all Muslims and militant jihad as “caliph” of the Islamic State, as al-Baghdadi had claimed 14 months ago in a Mosul mosque. Trouble has occurred before between the two terrorist groups; ISIS reportedly killed a top Zawahiri emissary trying to broker a ceasefire between the fighters in Syria in February 2014.

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Russian Leaflet Drop over Syria

In September 2015 the Russians involved themselves in Syria sending aircraft and troops to help President Assad. They started bombing raids about 1 October. There was considerable worry that the American and Russian aircraft might come into contact. The American forces were bombing ISIS, but the Russians, to aid Assad, were bombing both ISIS and Coalition-backed rebels. Syrian army helicopters have dropped tens of thousands of leaflets on ISIS and rebel fighters. The leaflets were dropped out of ageing Russian-made Mi-8 helicopters guided by a tablet with Google Maps.

The Russians were also involved in leaflet drops. Two of the leaflets are all text and one is a cartoon showing US and Israeli hands winding up an al Nusrah Front guerrilla. The leaflets are aimed at both civilians and fighters, and warn them to leave the area.

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Safe Passage Ticket

The first leaflet warns the people to leave the region. It targets civilians, and is designed to look like 'religious literature. It said they can travel through Syrian checkpoints safely with the leaflet, and the government will give them food and medical aid. Some of the text is:

Safe Passage Ticket

- Anyone carrying this ticket can cross the Syrian Arab Army check points safely.
- The Syrian Arab Army will provide medical aid and food for all who present this ticket.
- Cooperate with the Syrian Arab Army and leave the region.

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The Nation Calls to its People

The second leaflet targeted the rebels and urged rebel fighters to give up their arms. It said in part:

The Nation Calls to its People

To all people who are carrying weapons, The Syrian Arab Army affirms that the end of this crisis is near.

Oh People!

Do not do this to yourselves. The future is in front of you and there is an opportunity to come back to the nation. Take this opportunity to leave your weapons just as hundreds have across the country. Be welcomed back.

General Commander Armed Forces.

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Mercenaries of America and Israel

The third leaflet features a cartoon of an al-Nusrah front figurine being wound up by Israel and the United States. Since Russia was bombing all the rebels fighting against Assad indiscriminately, it places Al-Nusrah and ISIS in the same category. The message accompanying the propaganda cartoon - designed to sow divisions between the extremist factions said in part:

Al-Nusrah terrorists are paid by America and Israel.

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Kurdish Peshmerga Forces Congratulate Putin

Curiously, the Kurdish forces fighting ISIS seem to think that Putin is doing a better job than the Americans. Considering the fact that allegedly Putin is bombing everyone that is not in Assad’s Army, this seems like a strange comment of approval. Perhaps the Kurds want the United States to take a more forceful part in the bombing.

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The Russian Kalibr Cruise Missile

The Russians continue their assault against ISIS. On 7 October Russian warships attacked ISIS positions in Syria from the Caspian Sea. 26 “Kalibr” cruise missiles were launched from warships toward the provinces of Raqqa, Aleppo and Idlib approximately 930 miles away. ISIS has strongholds in Raqqa and Aleppo while the Nusrah Front has a strong presence in Idlib. The missiles had to fly over Iran and Iraq and it was reported that four of the cruise missiles aimed at targets in Syria missed their target and crashed in Iran. The Russians claimed that all the missiles hit their targets and those crashes were American propaganda and never occurred.

Syria's conflict, which began as an uprising against Assad in March 2011 has so far killed 250,000 people by October 2015, according to U.N. figures.

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ISIS fights back with Condoms

This sounds so much like a gag that I checked the source to see if it was a satirical newspaper. It is not. I should preface this story by saying that in WWII the Allies used barrage balloons floated over friendly forces. The balloons were attached to ground by chains, the idea being that enemy aircraft flying low to strafe them might hit the chains and destroy their motors or tear off their wings. So, there is a military precedent.

Because of the damage inflicted by Russian aircraft, according to the British newspaper Express, Isis has filled condoms with gas and attached an explosive. When the Russian aircraft appear, ISIS releases these balloons, apparently hoping they will be sucked into the Russian fighter’s air intake, or perhaps that the explosive will occur near a Russian fighter bringing it down. I can’t make this stuff up!

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Cash to Keep your Head?

After the Communists took over Vietnam, members of the old regime were forced into camps where they sat through re-education classes to bring their thinking in line with the new government. ISIS is doing something similar in areas under its control, but instead of education it has become a major source of income. Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi mentions this in his blog of 28 September 2015. He says in part:

The concept of repentance is key for the Islamic State whenever it takes over a new area and aims to consolidate control. Whoever undergoes repentance under ISIS successfully is issued a repentance ID document that stipulates the person has abandoned his/her apostasy and is to be treated like the rest of the Muslim populace under ISIS rule...It also turns out that repentance is apparently a source of revenue for ISIS, as a fee is charged for the initial act of repentance with additional payment required for subsequent “renewal” of repentance. I have translated the testimony this month of pro-ISIS source Omar Fawaz of Mosul regarding payments for repentance. It appears the sums are quite hefty and have contributed to the harsh negative impact on living standards. Examples:

“When those affiliated with the army and police repented in the last year, the Islamic State demanded from us a sum of $2500 in exchange for accepting repentance and forgiving us, so we paid it and obtained a repentance ID, and days ago we were informed that we must renew the repentance ID by paying a sum of $200, and the one who doesn't renew the repentance ID will be considered an apostate and will be executed in punishment…We are employees of the elections delegation and the Islamic State today demands us to pay a sum of $1000 in exchange for obtaining a repentance ID, and we have not received any salary for more than a year.”

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$200,000 Watch

Conflict News reported in October 2015 that this Russian leaflet depicting ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and a fancy Omega watch was dropped by the Russians on Hama and Deir al-Zor. The watch appeared on the wrist of Daesh leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi when he announced the formation of a caliphate in Iraq in 2014.

Al-Baghdadi wears a $200,000 watch and sends poor Muslims to die

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ISIS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi Banknote

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The Banknote back

This leaflet was prepared by the Syrians and dropped by their air force over eastern Damascus areas under opposition control portraying al-Baghdadi and al-Jolani (the ISIS and Jabhat al Nusra leaders) calling all the rebel fighters to repent for their sins. The leaflet was dropped by Syrian aircraft in early November of 2015. The text on the back of the dollar is:

This is the end of the dirty money. Return to your God. The best sinners are those repenting their sins.

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Airstrikes are Coming…LF01

On 15 November 2015, four U.S. Air Force A-10 “Warthogs” and two AC-130 gunships blew up a truck park near Abu Kamal, Iraq. The Warthogs dropped twenty-four 500-pound bombs, and added strafing runs with the 30mm Gatling guns. The American pilots destroyed 116 tankers carrying oil that could fund the Islamic State. The Pentagon followed this up with another massive strike on 22 November, taking out nearly 300 trucks in an attack near Al Hasakah and Deir Ezzor in neighboring Syria as part of Operation Tidal Wave II. The name “Tidal Wave II” is a throwback to a WWII bombing operation in which the U.S. bombed an Axis oil refinery in Ploesti, Romania in 1943 to cut off fuel for the Nazis. The planes dropped leaflets in the area before the bombing. The leaflet text in Arabic is:

Warning. Air Strikes are coming. Oil trucks will be destroyed. Get away from your oil trucks immediately. Do not risk your life.

Text in English adds:

Get out of your trucks now and run away from them.

The back of the leaflets depicted the same oil trucks burning. It warned that all oil facilities controlled by ISIS could be attacked.  The text on the back of the leaflet is:

The oil tankers will be destroyed because they are the lifeline of Daesh. Leave your tanker and run away.

Note: The terror group prefers to be called ISIS, ISIL or the Islamic State. It reportedly hates the derogatory term “Daesh” so much that its spokesmen have threatened to cut out the tongue of anyone using it. Note also that although the leaflet is uncoded, someone has written “LF-01” on the specimen so we now have a general idea of the coding system.

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Coalition warning LF02

A second American leaflet had a map of eastern Syria and the major roads and smuggling routes on one side that implied that the U.S. fighter-bombers knew the terrain and the secret roads and that if any smuggler chose to ignore the U.S.-led Coalition's warning, they would be destroyed. ISIS fighters claimed this leaflet was dropped shortly after the one showing the oil trucks. The other side of the leaflet showed fighters pulling away from a bombing raid leaving a city in flames. These are very similar to WWII leaflets dropped by the Germans showing London in flames after raids by V-1 missiles. The text for the map side is:

Warning! Tankers and oilfield equipment that are used to support DAESH will be targeted by Coalition forces. Fuel tanker drivers and other workers at DAESH's oil refineries will be in danger and be a target for Coalition forces.

The text on the burning city side is:

DAESH's oilfield operations are funding terrorism and repressing people. Coalition forces will continue to attack all of DAESH's oil refineries until the group is defeated. All must stay away from these refineries because Coalition forces are keeping up air attacks on DAESH and its oil refineries.

The anti-ISIS coalition has targeted Islamic State oil infrastructure since bombing began in 2014, frequently hitting mobile oil refineries. Militants were able to quickly repair oil infrastructure. In 2015, The United States developed a broader list of targets, including well heads, oil collection points, trucks and the distribution network. The air campaign was named Tidal Wave II, after the World War II air bombing campaign aimed at destroying oil refineries in Romania to cut off oil for the Axis powers.

In regard to the general bombing of ISIS, from August 2014 to December 2015, U.S. and Coalition forces have conducted more than 8,200 airstrikes against Islamic State targets.

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F-16 over Syria

A third American leaflet depicts a fighter dropping a bomb, at the left an explosion and at the right troops. The website Conflict News says that this leaflet was allegedly dropped over ISIS territory in Aleppo calling for their surrender. The text is:

Fighters of DAESH: Your leaders make you a target for the airstrikes of the coalition forces. You don't have to be a victim. Go back to your homes and families.

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40 Types of Bombs

The Syrian Civil War website reported that the Syrian Air Force dropped the above leaflet over Hama, Idlib, and Latakia. The leaflet shows a fighter firing rockets on the front and the back is all text. Some of the text is:

This aircraft has 40 different types of bombs that can hit the ground, the underground and fortified targets. There is no hiding from them.

It is time to face reality. The world is changing fast. Save yourself. It is not worth it. Throw away your weapons. This is your last chance.

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To our people…

On 16 October 2015, a plain all-text leaflet was dropped by the Syrian Air Force over Aleppo. The text is:

To our people in the Southern and Western Countryside of Aleppo

The Syrian Arab Army has begun to liberate you from terrorist organizations.
Any housing of, or cooperation with terrorists will make you a target for our armed forces.
Any villages in which terrorist convoys leave from or return to will be a target.
All who raise the white flag will be safe.
Your children who help the armed forces during the operation will receive amnesty.

On 9 November 2015, Baghdad announced that the Iraqi air force had dropped leaflets on areas in Anbar province. It said in part:

Iraq Air Force dropped, this evening, millions of leaflets over areas in Anbar province; those areas are Ramadi, Fallujah, Heet, Kabisa and Qaim. The leaflets include guidance for a private radio station and a special number to send information in preparation for cleansing all areas of the province.

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The Last 15 minutes

We don’t know when or where the Syrian military dropped this leaflet. It was sent to us by a Syrian to be added to this article. The text is interesting, almost poetic:

The Last 15 minutes

To the Armed ones: It is time for the truth.
The world is changing quickly…the Army is advancing…
Think of yourself…waiting will cost you your life…
Do not hesitate…quickly discard your weapons so you can save your life and your future.

The Syrian Army and Armed Forces

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700 Militants

In another drop by Syrian helicopter two leaflets were disseminated. One showed a group of guerrillas laying down their rifles and the text:

The first bunch: 700 militants put down their weapons and chose life. You have little time left. Take the initiative and make the right decision. Choose life.

The second leaflet is all text and is either a separate item or could be the back of the leaflet showing the guerrillas. It says:

My brother, Citizens,

The Syrian Arab Army’s decision is to eradicate the criminal terrorist gangs wherever they are found. Your cooperation with the forces of the Syrian Arab Army helps in returning the security and stability to your region.

The General Command of the Army and Armed Forces

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Turkey shoots down a Russian Sukhoi Su-24

On 24 November the war in Syria got more dangerous when Turkey shot down a Russian warplane. The Turks claimed the Russian were warned 10 times. Putin labeled Turkey “accomplices of terrorists.” Putin called it a “stab in the back”, a term with historical precedence. American President Franklin D. Roosevelt talked about the Invasion of France by Italy in 1940 at a time when French troops were fighting the Germans. He said:

The hand that held the dagger has stuck it into the back of its neighbor.

Curiously, another historical precedence occurred in WWI when after a Serbian assassinated an Austro-Hungarian leader a dozen treaties kicked in starting WWI. In this case, Russian President Vladimir Putin said the downing of the Russian plane would have "serious consequences.” A Russian attack on Turkey might require a NATO response. An attack on one member is considered to be an attack on all 26 members. I do not believe the world is ready to go to war over Syria, but it is interesting how history tends to repeat itself.

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An Anti-Assad Leaflet

We don’t know who among Syrian President Bashar Assad’s enemies prepared this leaflet. It could be the Americans, the Kurds, ISIS, or it could be any of the guerrilla forces trying to overthrow him. This leaflet was actually found on the ground near the Russian embassy, in Beirut, Lebanon. The leaflet is covered with blood and that seems accidental, although there is a very slight possibility that it was printed that way to imply that Assad was a “butcher.” It would be a good technique, but I don’t think most of the anti-Assad forces would have such imagination. The text is:

Listen well, we will execute you and kill your children just like you killed Syrian children.

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A Chair for You…

This would appear to be another anti-Assad leaflet printed by one of the warring groups against the Syrian government. It is an odd piece and simply depicts a chair with the back resembling a shirt and casual jacket of the kind favored by Assad. The leaflet was found in Alewite areas of Syria in May 2015. President Assad is of Alawite descent. The Alawites, also known as Alawis, are an Islamic sect, centered in Syria, that is a controversial branch of Shia Islam. During the Syrian Civil War, the Alawites have suffered as a result of their support for the Assad government against the mainly Sunni opposition. I thought this was a threat against Assad, but the translator said it is simply a statement that means something like “you sit there with no conscience while thousands die.” The leaflet text is:

You sit comfortably while thousands die

On 1 December 2015, the U.S. authorized a Special Operations “targeting force” in Iraq as part of the intensified military effort to fight ISIS. The special operations force would conduct raids, free hostages held by ISIS, gather intelligence and capture ISIS leaders in both Iraq and Syria. Some U.S. Special Operations forces operated inside Iraq before this date as advisors to Iraqi and Kurdish forces, but allegedly have not engaged in unilateral raids.

The United States and its Coalition partners spent the year 2015 trying to stop the flow of recruits to ISIS through propaganda broadcasts, television and social media. It is a battle that the West lost. According to intelligence reports, the number of foreign fighters in Iraq and Syria more than doubled since 2014 to at least 27,000. Between 27,000 and 31,000 foreign fighters from 86 countries were in Iraq and Syria by 2015, compared with a figure of about 12,000 foreign fighters in June 2014.

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Surrender Now…

In late December 2015, the Syrian Arab Air Force Dropped over 160,000 Leaflets in the East Ghouta region of rural Damascus. The short message to the rebels was:

Surrender Now, The Syrian Army Is Coming! Long live Assad!

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ISIS bolstering Loyalty

There was little news about ISIS as 2015 came to an end. The Coalition and Russians were bombing them with additional help from France and Canada. Some of the Syrian and Western fighters that joined ISIS deserted during a battle near the Iraqi city of Mosul. As a result, 10 were beheaded as an example. Apparently, this is ISIS PSYOP to bolster the loyalty of its members. An Isis spokesman said:

The militants were found guilty for evacuating a post at the battlefront, where clashes took place between them and the Kurdish Peshmerga forces. The Sharia Court of Mosul decided to behead them in front of hundreds of ISIS members in order to prevent others from taking such a move without the permission of their military leadership.

It is not the first time ISIS has used public beheadings as a warning to others to obey orders. In November 2015, they executed 73 militant fighters for fleeing from battles with the Kurdish Peshmerga forces.

In May 2015, U.S. Special Forces captured a huge trove of documents in Syria. The documents were published in December. One was an extremely detailed fatwa on when ISIS “owners” of enslaved women can have sex with them. The fatwa has the force of law. Among the fatwa’s injunctions are bans on a father and son having sex with the same female slave; and the owner of a mother and daughter having sex with both. Joint owners of a female captive are similarly enjoined from intercourse because she is viewed as part of a joint ownership.

The United Nations and human rights groups have accused the Islamic State of the systematic abduction and rape of thousands of women and girls as young as 12. ISIS has boasted about it and established a department of “war spoils” to manage slavery. The Fatwa lists 15 injunctions. One says:

If the owner of a female captive, who has a daughter suitable for intercourse, has sexual relations with the latter, he is not permitted to have intercourse with her mother and she is permanently off limits to him. Should he have intercourse with her mother then he is not permitted to have intercourse with her daughter and she is to be off limits to him.

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Iraqi Soldier Celebrates Retaking Ramadi

The year 2016 started off with a minor defeat for ISIS as they were pushed out of the city of Ramadi in Iraq. The liberation of Ramadi took seven months. It was held by no more than 1,000 ISIS fighters and the Iraqi Security Forces had concentrated roughly 10,000 troops with armor and heavy artillery against it. The ISF was backed by American air power and supported by American intelligence and advisers. The Americans wanted Sunnis to liberate the Sunni town and did not want to use Shia forces which had massacred Sunnis in other areas. The Americans were deeply involved in every phase of this battle and it appears that the Iraqis are not yet ready to take on ISIS without massive American aid.

The increased bombing mentioned above might be having some effect on the economic stability of ISIS. The Islamic State announced plans to halve the monthly salaries of its members in Syria and Iraq:

Because of the exceptional circumstances that the Islamic State is passing through, a decision was taken to cut the salaries of the mujahedeen in half. No one will be exempt from this decision no matter his position.

Syrian ISIS fighters would have their salary cut from $400 to $200 per month. Foreign fighters, who were paid double the Syrian militants, would have their monthly income reduced from $800 to $400 per month. Some of this economic distress could be a result of the United States starting to bomb ISIS cash repositories in January 2016. There were two air strikes, one of them against the El Rafidayn Bank in Mosul. The U.S. believes it destroyed up to three-quarters of a billion dollars, plus an estimated several hundred pounds of gold. U.S. intelligence had been studying ISIS’s communications and that is where they came up with the numbers for the alleged loss of wealth.  A short time later it was reported that ISIS asked Raqqa residents to pay utility bills in black market American dollars, and will release detainees for a price of $500 a person. They had originally bought fighters with good salaries, honeymoon and baby bonuses, and free energy drinks and Snickers bars. Apparently, the “happy days” are over. In the Iraqi city of Fallujah, ISIS fighters who once made $400 a month aren't being paid at all and their food rations have been cut to two meals a day.

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Three of the Jaysh al-Islam Leaflets

In January 2016, anti-government forces of Jaysh al-Islam (Army of Islam) reported that they had used drones to drop 20,000 leaflets over a number of Damascus areas: including the famed Old City, the upscale Muhajireen quarter near the presidential palace, and the Aash al-Warour district on the foothills of Mount Qasioun. Some of the reported messages on the small “slogan slips” are:

Very soon, the liberated Damascus will welcome you!

The Army of Islam is coming with thousands of Mujahideen to the walls of the city; we will reinstate the right to its owners.

The Terrorist and sectarian-minded Bashar doesn’t care about you, He doesn’t care about your blood! What are you waiting for!

Do not allow the slaughterer to lead away your sons to kill and terrorize innocent people.

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The Inherent Resolve Campaign Medal

On 30 March 2016, The Pentagon created a new medal to honor the U.S. troops who deployed to Iraq or Syria to support operations against Islamic State militants. The Operation Inherent Resolve Campaign Medal will be awarded to service members who have deployed to Iraq or Syria or its airspace or territorial waters since June 15, 2014. As of 30 March about 11,000 troops are eligible for the new medal.

On 30 June 2015, Jaysh al-Islam's website published a 20-minute video that showed its fighters executing 18 alleged ISIS militants by shotgun. The video mimics the imagery that ISIS has used for similar filmed executions; however, it reversed the imagery by having the executioners wearing orange prisoner outfits and the victims being dressed in black robes. The video, which included some English subtitles, stated the killings were in revenge for recent beheadings of captured Jaysh al-Islam fighters by ISIS.

The radio is one of ISIS’s strongest propaganda weapons. The Voice of the Caliphate, had taken out a pair of competitors in Jalalabad and was a strong competitor to Allied stations in Afghanistan. It broadcast for 90 minutes a day in both the Pashto and Dari languages. Programs include news, interviews, vitriol against the Afghan government and the Taliban, recruitment propaganda, and devotional music in multiple languages.

On 1 February 2016, U.S. airstrikes in eastern Afghanistan’s Nangarhar province struck the terrorist group's FM radio station and killed 29 ISIS fighters. The 29 killed included eight ISIS members who worked on the group's radio and online efforts. The U.S. strikes not only hit the radio facility but destroyed the Islamic extremist group's internet equipment.

On 2 February 2016, the Syrian Army warned residents of Aleppo that they face "bloodshed", "destruction" and the death of their loved ones if they did not expel rebel fighters from the city within 48 hours in leaflets signed by the leadership council of the Armed Forces dropped from government helicopters. The leaflet offered safety to local fighters provided that they hand over their weapons and all foreigners fighting in their ranks. The leaflet told residents in part:

The war is coming to its end. It will be tragic for all of us if it ends with the death of your loved ones and the destruction of your homes. The leaders of the Arab Syrian Army are offering bloodshed or a chance to avoid this fate by expelling the foreign fighters from your area. Safe passage for their exit will be arranged. This opportunity is on the table until 4 February…if you do not accept, reconciliation will cease and we will resume fighting. Save your lives and your homes.

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Deir ez-Zor warning

On 15 February, it was reported that the United States had dropped leaflets warning ISIS of coming air strikes on Deir ez-Zor, the seventh largest city in Syria and the largest in the eastern part of Syria. On the front of the leaflet three Coalition aircraft fly over five walking armed ISIS fighters at the left and a small group of ISIS fighters with a piece of artillery at the right. Both images are covered with cross-hairs. On the back of the leaflet the planes fly overhead as explosions occur below at the left and right. The leaflets bear no code numbers but a very strange imprint” “USG Product.” I have never seen anything like that before but if I had to justify it, perhaps it is meant to show that these are not Russian, but U.S. Government leaflets. It is very strange and makes one wonder about the leaflets. The text on the front is:

Attention Syrian People: Go away from Daesh! The Coalition will be dropping bombs over the ISIS fighters.

The text on the back is hard to read from the blurred image but seems to be:

Flee to a safe location. The coalition is coming to bomb Daesh. Civilians, leave the areas that Daesh occupies. The coalition is fighting for the safety and security of the Syrian people.

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ISIS Brags about Suicide Bombers

In March 2016, The Amaq news agency affiliated with the Islamic State reported that the “caliphate” carried out 90 suicide attacks in Iraq, Syria and Libya during the month of February. 51 of the suicide attacks involved the use of vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices and the remaining 39 were executed using explosive belts. Amaq previously released a similar summary for January claiming that 85 suicide operations were launched in Iraq and Syria.

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Our beloved Syrian Citizens

On 3 March 2016 Syria dropped three “reconciliation” leaflets on Daraa Province. The first two were safe conduct/surrender passes and that those who lay down their weapons voluntarily will be completely forgiven, prison punishments for crimes committed will be three to five years and nothing will be recorded on their permanent record. The third leaflet had a longer text and said:

Our beloved Syrian Citizens

-  The war caused by the terrorists in our country is not in the interest of anyone.
-  These terrorists that have come among you are the cause for all your pain and misery.
-  We will continue fighting them, until we cleanse them from our land.
-  The Syrian Army offers to stop this bloodshed by forgiving all who lay down their weapons voluntarily and assures that they will not be prosecuted by the law.
-  The Syrian Army ensures you that they will provide safety you with a safe return to your homes, wealth, and your daily normal life,
-  YOUR choice of safety and peace is much better than a choice of destruction and war.

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Liberated

There was another leaflet drop on 10 March over Mosul, Iraq. The leaflet depicted four photographs of Iraqi Army soldiers, some celebrating with ISIS flags they had captured in battle. The leaflet text was:

The brave Iraqi champions evicted the gangs of infidels; liberated their lands and now, like “sulfur” they will burn all the Daesh fighters for eternity.

To the right of the photograph is an Iraqi flag with the word “Liberated,” and the names of the towns Tikrit, Sinjar, Biji, al Mahlia, and Ramaldi, All liberated from ISIS by the new Iraqi Army. Colonel Steve Warren, Spokesman for Operation Inherent Resolve (OIR), said:

Leaflet drop in Mosul yesterday struck a nerve with ISIL

The leaflets were designed by Iraqi forces but dropped by Coalition aircraft. Allegedly, ISIS locked down the neighborhood so the locals could not pick up and read the leaflets and sent their own fighters to clean up the streets.

The Weekly Strike Update from the Combined Joint Task Force - Operation Inherent Resolve said that in Mosul, the Coalition conducted 12 strikes, and coordinated with the Iraqi Army to drop leaflets over the city to let the residents know the Iraqi Security Forces have not forgotten them and are coming to liberate them.

It was also revealed on 10 March that a defector allegedly leaked what appears to be a USB drive’s worth of ISIS’s secret data, including the personal information of 22,000 ISIS fighters. That personal data includes the fighters’ names, phone numbers, hometown and even blood types, all information they apparently filled out on forms in the process of signing up to join the violent group.

To everyone’s surprise (apparently including the Syrian government), on 14 March 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered a partial pullout of the Russian military from Syria. He said the Russian air campaign has allowed Syrian President Bashar Assad's military to turn the tide of the five-year war and helped create conditions for U.N peace talks in Geneva. The Russian airbase in Hemeimeem and a naval facility in the Syrian port of Tartous will continue to operate.The Russians and Americans brokered cease-fire on 27 February that was fairly successful but both sides have accused one another of violations. The Islamic State group and al-Qaida's branch in Syria, the Nusra Front, are excluded from the cease-fire.

On March 2016, it was reported that Iraqi security forces detained 149 ISIS fighters last week as the terrorists tried to blend in with 35,000 civilians fleeing numerous small villages along the Euphrates River Valley. They would be prosecuted by the Iraqi government. As part of Operation Desert Lynx with U.S. coalition aircraft, the Iraqi security forces dropped leaflets last week in small villages to communicate with residents while trying to reduce civilian casualties and weaken ISIS morale. The leaflets gave villagers safety instructions and warned ISIS that “Iraq’s lions are close.”

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The United States frowns on leaflets showing dead bodies because it believes such scenes enrage the enemy and harden them to continue fighting. Having said that, although it is official policy, the U.S. still produces such leaflets on occasion. The Syrians seem to like the “death and disfigurement” images. They have produced several such leaflets. This one was dropped over Daraya near Damascus, on 3 April 2016. It shows dead insurgents on both the front and back. It says in part:

Drop your weapons or this will be your fate

On 10 April the United States escalated the force against Isis. For the first time in this conflict, B-52 bombers were sent from Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana to al-Udeid air base in Qatar. The last time the bombers had been used in the region was 1990 during Operation Desert Storm.

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On 12 April 2016, Coalition aircraft dropped anti-Isis leaflets over Raqqa. One side depicts ISIS thugs trying to kidnap a woman and child on a mountaintop while Coalition forces try to pull them back from the terrorists.

The text is:

Don't let Daesh take you with them to their inevitable fate.

The back depicts terrified ISIS fighters fleeing the area, throwing their flag and headbands and all signs of their membership from their vehicle. The text is:

Leave the fight now. Do not take yourself into destruction.

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Surrender Now

On 21 April, the Syrian Air Force dropped thousands of all-text leaflets over the northern countryside of Homs. The text is:

Surrender Now

Syria is the home for all her children and she needs all of you to protect her and reconstruct what has been destroyed.

Come and join the local reconciliation. It is the guarantee for your return to a normal and secure life, as it has been in the past. A life based on love, mutual aid between you, and work in the interest of our country. And don’t forget that this crisis wouldn’t have happened without the intervention of strangers who have been behind all the killing and destruction.

It is time to wipe our tears and to bring back the smile for everyone.

Headquarters of the Syrian Arab Army

This leaflet title seems to be a favorite of the Syrians and has been used numerous times. The message is usually different and mentions the city that is targeted. It was first used as early as 2013 in Qusayr. We depict one very short version several pages above that was dropped in December 2015. The title was used again on Jisr Al-Shughour on 7 April, Homs on 21 April and Aleppo on 11 August 2016. The leaflets are apparently part of a strategy of musalaha, or minimizing harm at the end of a siege.

On 22 April 2016, captured documents proved that the base salary offered to the ISIS workers was reduced to just $50 a month. There were various bonuses though; for every wife the worker would receive an extra $50. For each child under age 15, there was another $35. Any “female captive,” (sex slave), would entitle him to an additional $50, all payable in U.S. greenbacks. Fighters were forbidden to use ISIS vehicles except for approved military operations. Apparently gasoline is getting short. The fighters’ homes would no longer receive around-the-clock power, in order to assure a plentiful supply for military bases. ISIS seems to be suffering financially, but experts warn that any predictions of the Islamic State’s collapse are premature.

On 25 April 2016, President Obama said the US would send 250 Special Forces personnel to Syria in non-combat roles, five times the number of soldiers that are currently there, in the first major expansion of US ground troops since the war began Obama had repeatedly ruled out sending ground troops to Syria, and the 50 US personnel already deployed there were described as serving in non-combat roles.

On 26 April 2016, just before the Coalition bombed and shelled Fallujah, U.S. aircraft dropped white leaflets written in Arabic over Fallujah, calling on insurgents to give up. The text was:

Surrender, you are surrounded.

If you are a terrorist, beware, because your last day was yesterday. In order to spare your life, end your actions and surrender to coalition forces now. We are coming to arrest you.

There were also two broadcasts in Arabic — one apparently aimed at spooking the insurgentss, the other possibly meant to help civilians. One of the messages was calling on the insurgents to come out and fight and then there was a tape recording of laughing.

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It is Time to Leave the City

On 19 May 2016, another Coalition leaflet was reported to the public. The people of Raqqa have been told for months that they were about to be freed and to expect liberation. Raqqa has been occupied as the ISIS “Capitol” since 2014. Allegedly, the predominately Kurdish Syrian Democratic Forces have made advances in Raqqa province, and are very close to entering Raqqa city. This leaflet uses the general theme of escape.

Raqqa is depicted dark and grey, a place of no life and joy. Three ISIS fighters are depicted dead on the ground. A family seeks to escape, as they leave the city color returns to the individual that leads them. This is an indication that there is still life and happiness to be found away from ISIS occupation. The text is:

The time you have been waiting for has come, the time to leave Raqqa.

The official sign they run by says:

ISIS checkpoint, Raqqa Province

Reports state that ISIS fighters have sent their own families away from Raqqa, trying to safeguard them. They are digging in and have forbidden the citizens of the town from leaving. Apparently they want them as human shields. It is unclear how close the Coalition is to attacking the city.

Surprisingly, when asked about the leaflet, a Pentagon spokesmen said “we are just messing with their minds,” an implication that no attack is eminent. That would appear to be a very stupid statement by someone who does not understand PSYOP. The Coalition tries to convince people that the leaflets are honest and trustworthy and here some un-named person says the leaflet is false. That would seem to destroy the credibility of the PSYOP campaign. It also sends mixed messages to the enemy and the residents of Raqqa.

Or, the comment itself might be false propaganda, trying to make the terrorists think that no attack is coming. It appears there is some black work mixed in with the white propaganda. Time will tell if the leaflet message was real or fake. Whatever the real story is, the Coalition seemed to like this leaflet because they reportedly dropped it again on 26 May and 27 May.

It was also reported on 19 May that ISIS used terrorist tactics in the Iraqi town on Mosul, apparently to gain complete control of the 2.5 million people that live there. 25 “spies,” accused of working for the Iraqi government were executed by being lowered into a huge vat of nitric acid until their bodies dissolved. As ISIS continues to lose battles and ground their tactics have become more and more brutal.

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A Fallujah Cartoon

The lion represents Iraq. The cobra has a stranglehold on the word "Falluja".

On 23 May the Iraqi air force dropped leaflets over the city of Fallujah urging civilians to avoid Islamic State bases after operations to retake the city began. The text of the leaflet is:

The liberation of Fallujah is close

Iraq’s army warned Fallujah’s residents to leave the city and warned that ISIS positions would be targeted by the U.S.-led Coalition’s warplanes. Fallujah was the first city to fall to the militant group in January 2014, months before fighters overran the country’s second-largest city, Mosul. The offensive to regain control of Fallujah began on 22 May.

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ISIS Black Propaganda to hide the Murder of Prisoners

As Iraqi forces gathered outside Fallujah in late May, ISIS allegedly prepared this internal memorandum telling its fighters how to fool the press and public by making it appear that the Anti-Isis forces were killing prisoners. The memo says in part:

Hashd Al-Rafidi [Derogatory term for Shia, referring to the Popular Mobilzation Forces] and the Safavid army [Safavid was a Persian Empire 5 centuries ago, but now means the Iraqi Army] have mobilized on the outskirt of Fallujah, therefore you have to prepare for the decisive battle against the Rafidis.

Prepare to move the families of the Mujahideen to a safer place outside Fallujah.

Set up explosives in houses, government buildings and mosques and blow them up before Hashd Al-Rafidi and the Safavid army enter, record it and publish it as revenge attacks against the Sunnis.

Punish by death anyone who works with the Hashd Al-Rafidi and the Safavid army.

Have the Mujahideen wear outfits similar to the Hashd Al-Rafidi and get them to kill the prisoners in the jails of Fallujah, use Rafidi slogans when killing, record it and publish it as the act of Hashd Al-Rafidi.

On 26 May several photographs appeared in the world press showing U.S. Special Operations troops wearing Kurdish insignia. Apparently the Americans are embedded with the Kurds and wear the insignia as a show of loyalty.

About 100 American civilian veteran volunteers have joined the Kurds to fight ISIS, but they had to be careful to join the approved anti-ISIS forces so as not to be declared illegal and risk punishment upon return home. The Kurdish PKK is considered a terrorist group while one of their subsidiaries, the YPG is considered friendly to the West. Americans who have joined the Kurds say that PKK militants could become YPG fighters by simply changing fatigues. American volunteers who return home are usually interviewed by the FBI to determine what they did and who they fought with.

On 27 May, the Voice of America reported that Iraqi helicopters dropped leaflets over Mosul, Iraq, asking villagers to leave for safer locations ahead of an operation against ISIS. Civilians allegedly asked the military to refrain from targeting them during the push to retake the city. The fact is that civilians are never targeted so apparently ISIS had their human shields speak in an attempt to lessen the bombing on their fighters. Kurdish forces stated that the dropping of those leaflet indicated that an attack was eminent. A pattern is becoming clear. In the last week or two the civilians of Mosul, Fallujah and Raqqa have all been warned to leave their cities because of eminent attacks. So far, none of those attacks have occurred.

On 30 May 2016, it was reported that Syrian Air Force helicopters dropped leaflets over the opposition-held areas of Hraytan, Hanano and Tell Musibin neighborhoods in Aleppo province with calls for militants to surrender.

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Fake Document?

The above document was reported to be a forgery of an ISIS document prepared by the Coalition and dropped over Manbij, eastern Aleppo at the end of May 2016. I assumed if this was a propaganda forgery it would probably be a pass to allow civilians to leave Allepo. I was wrong. I have been informed that the document is a pass that allows ISIS fighters to pass through their lines. That is even stranger. It implies the Coalition is trying to weaken the ISIS lines by giving their soldiers a safe way to desert from the impending attack.

Curiously, this may not be the first time a document has been accused of being a Coalition forgery. Another document from December of 2015 was described by the Coalition:

Coalition forces had recovered Islamic State leaflets in the nearby city of Falluja urging its fighters — if they lose control of the city — to impersonate Iraqi security forces and commit atrocities. Some acts that they’re instructed to do on this document include blowing up mosques, killing and torturing civilians and breaking into homes while dressed as I.S.F. fighters. They do all this to discredit the I.S.F. This is the behavior of thugs, behavior of killers, and the behavior of terrorists.

Other experts on ISIS documents doubted the document because: the Fallujah document has an ISIS letter head from Ninawa province. Fallujah is in Anbar province; the document refers to the government militia with its real honorable name Hashd Sha'abi while the regular derogatory Islamic State term for the militia is Hashd Rafidi.

Another alleged fake ISIS document ordered all women in Iraq’s region of Mosul to undergo female genital mutilation.

It may be that the Coalition is regularly printing fake ISIS documents.

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British Special Forces Serenade ISIS

In late May 2016, the British Special Air Squadrons reported that they have been using “Bollywood” music against ISIS. The Radical group’s followers consider Western music frivolous and nonreligious. Nothing could be more frivolous than Indian movie music where a hundred people can suddenly burst into full song and carefully choreographed dance moves. In the military there is a thing called “reconnaissance by fire.” You open fire at an area to see what comes running out or how many fire back. It allows you to determine enemy strength. The British did something similar with the Indian music. A Special Forces team, along with some Libyan troops, left two cars near checkpoints on the edge of Sirte. At dawn they blasted Bollywood music by remote control through two huge speakers mounted on the vehicles:

We needed to unnerve the militants and at the same time use some sort of passive measure to gauge their force strength in the area we are working and it went well.

At the same time, it was announced that China will send 5,000 of its most elite military forces into the Levant War Zone to help Russia in the fight against ISIS. The “Siberian Tiger” Special Forces and “Night Tiger” Special Forces Units were given authorization to be deployed by China’s People’s Congress after China passed its first anti-terrorism law allowing their army to take part in anti-terror missions abroad.

On 9 June 2016 the Islamic State bragged that it had ordered 489 “martyrdom operations,” better known as “suicide bombings” in Iraq, Syria and Libya during the first five months of 2016. The jihadists performed 119 “martyrdom operations” in the month of May alone. The Islamic State was launching suicide attacks at a historically high rate. All terrorist groups throughout the world, including the Islamic State, carried out an average of 61 suicide bombings per month in 2015.

On 12 June 2016, Omar Mir Seddique Mateen, an American born male of Afghan descent called 911 and stated that he had sworn allegiance to ISIS. He killed 49 people at the Pulse, an Orlando, Florida gay and lesbian bar, and wounded a further 53. At first, this was thought to be the first ISIS-inspired act of terrorism in the United States. His father who had apparently hosted some radio shows with an anti-American theme disowned the son. As people came forward that knew the killer some said he was a bigot that hated women, blacks and gays and some co-workers said he was always angry and out of control. His ex-wife said he was probably insane. A former classmate of said he believed Mateen was gay, saying Mateen once asked him out. Then the gay society spoke out and it was discovered that he had been going to the gay bar for years. It appears that rather than an ISIS terror attack this was simply murder committed in rage by a self-loathing homosexual.

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A Hacked ISIS site

I was recently asked on a radio podcast if psychological operations include modern social media. Of course, the answer is “yes.” ISIS uses social media to gain converts and followers. Curiously, hackers have begun attacking those ISIS accounts with pornography and homosexual images and text. According to the newspaper Stars and Stripes, a member of the hacking group “Anonymous” using the handle “Wauchula Ghost,” has compromised hundreds of Twitter accounts of Islamic State supporters and flooded them with pornography. Muslim religious customs require piety and chastity. By tweeting sexual content rather than traditional battle cries against the West, the Ghost said he wants to undermine the voices of ISIS recruiters and chase them off popular social networks.

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We Are Coming

On 15 June, the Syrian Army aided by Russian air support made advances in the direction of Al-Thawrah in Raqqa province. Syrian military aircraft dropped leaflets over Raqqa and the surrounding area, offering ISIS and its allies a chance to lay down their arms and surrender to the troops. On the front of the leaflet, five photos depicted a Syrian rocket launch, Syrian aircraft, and three pictures of dead anti-government fighters. The text is:

This will be the fate of any terrorist who goes armed against the Army and People

WE ARE COMING

The High Command of the Syrian Armed Forces

The back of the leaflet was all text:

Militant! The moment of truth is here. The world is changing rapidly. The Army is advancing. Think about it, waiting can cost you your life. Do not hesitate; hurry to surrender your arms, to save your live and your future.

The High Command of the Syrian Armed Forces

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An MI-8 Helicopter trailed by just dropped leaflets

On June 28, A Syrian MI-8 helicopter dropped leaflets over the town of Ibtaa in Daraa. At the same time Coalition airstrikes hit giant grain silos controlled by ISIS near Manbij, northern Syria.

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ISIS Convoy Attacked while Fleeing Fallujah

On the same day it was reported that Iraqi security forces had retaken the city of Fallujah after a months-long battle. Fallujah was the first major city to fall to ISIS forces in 2014, and had two years to prepare defenses. Curiously, during Operation Desert Storm U.S. troops attacked a fleeing Iraqi column in an area called the “Highway of Death” and were soundly criticized for attacking retreating troops. Apparently, it was considered “unsportsmanlike.” After the fall of Fallujah, U.S. and Iraqi forces attacked fleeing ISIS vehicles and claim to have killed about 250 fighters and destroyed about 120 vehicles. There were no reported complaints this time.

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The Iraqi Military Drops Leaflets on Mosul

On 7 July 2016, Iraqi aircraft dropped millions of leaflets on the ISIS main stronghold of Mosul, informing the city's residents of the Iraqi army's recent victories against the militant group in Fallujah and recent ongoing military operations in Nineveh province. The three different leaflets also called on people inside Mosul to prepare for operations to liberate the city. The leaflets promised residents of the city and its suburbs that the liberation of Mosul would begin once military operations in the city's surroundings have finished. One leaflet says:

The Enduring sons of Mosul

The battle of Fallujah ended in lightning speed. Security forces are laying siege to ISIS inside Mosul. This is the last battle. Cooperate with your brothers to end the battle quickly and with the lowest number of casualties.

A second leaflet calls on any citizens inside the city who may have joined with ISIS (calling them those who’ve been “deceived” by the terror group):

The ISIS fighters will leave you to certain death and save themselves. Leave your positions immediately, as the security forces are on the way. We will crush whatever is left with no mercy. Surrender and stay safe.

The Iraqi army also launched military operations to retake Gayara and Shargat, two strategic towns in southern Mosul, on 18 June 2016.

Speaking of Shargat, on 7 July it was also reported that ISIS executed seven of its own fighters by boiling them alive as punishment for fleeing the conflict in Sharqat. The seven were thrown into a giant cauldron of boiling water.

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Liberation is near

On 9 July 2016, Iraqi aircraft dropped “Liberation is near” leaflets on Mosul that warned ISIS terrorists inside the city to leave their positions immediately as the Iraqi armed forces are very close to freeing Mosul city. Some of the text is:

The Iraqi armed forces have besieged the ISIS Takfiri terrorists in Mosul city and its surrounding areas; cooperate with your brothers to help us put an to this war soon with minimum losses for the civilians and maximum losses for the terrorists. ISIS fighters, leave your positions immediately. The Iraqi armed forces are very close to winning back Mosul.

A Takfiri is a Muslim who accuses another Muslim of the abandonment or renunciation of a religious or political belief. The accusation itself is derived from the word kafir (unbeliever), and is described as when “one who is, or claims to be, a Muslim is declared impure.” The Iraqis are calling the ISIS fighters impure and fallen Muslims.

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Iraqi Helicopters Disseminate Leaflets

On 18 July, Media officials with the Ministry of Defense announced that the Iraqi Air Force dropped thousands of leaflets at areas west of Anbar and southwest of Kirkuk, urging citizens to stay away from ISIS headquarters. The officials, in a press statement, said:

Today, Iraqi Air Force aircraft dropped thousands of leaflets at Rawa, Aana and Qaim west of Anbar and also at Hawija southwest of Kirkuk and al-Riyad in western the city. The leaflets carried a warning for the ISIS members active in these areas and urged the citizens to stay away from ISIS headquarters.

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Libya Leaflet to Sirte

On 18 July 2016, Libyan jets bombed ISIS positions in Sirte as the battle to oust the terrorists approaches its tenth week. Besides bombs, there have also been Libyan airdrops of a leaflet behind ISIS lines, designed to undermine the defenders’ morale. The text is:

As they look back and see you dying, your commanders are fleeing from the battle. Do you really think they are telling you the truth and have been honest about their plans in this fight? We see more and more of your commanders sneaking away and providing us with information on your locations and your movements.

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I will send 100 more Men…

We don’t have an exact date for this short cartoon leaflet but it was dropped on Manjib, Syria, sometime in July. I have seen several such cartoon leaflets. They are usually crudely drawn with a short text. Most have been photographed in the field by phones and tweeted, so generally the image is poor. At the right, an ISIS fighter sees his comrades die and calls for reinforcements. His leader answers:

I will send you 100 more men, hold on your positions.

At the left, two ISIS members listen to their leader lying to the fighters.

But we have no more men.

He has told the same lie 100 times before.

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Avoid ISIS Headquarters

On 24 July 2016, Iraqi aircraft dropped millions of copies of a bi-fold leaflet on Mosul and Sharqat, requesting the residents avoid ISIS headquarters and cooperate with the security forces for the preparations to liberate Mosul and the surrounding areas.

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Food and supplies dropped by Syria to civilians trapped in Aleppo

On 27 July, Syrian helicopters dropped thousands of leaflets over rebel-held areas in the northern city of Aleppo urging rebels to lay down their weapons and the civilians to cooperate with the Syrian army. The leaflet to the insurgents said in part:

Aleppo is winning: to all those holding weapons in the face of the Syrian state, you have got to seriously think about your fate, as many of your leaders have fled with their money to Turkey. Don't risk yourself, it's your decision, you don't have much time left.

The leaflet to the civilians said in part:

Our dear families in Aleppo, your sons and brothers in the Syrian army are sacrificing to rid you of the terrorism. Your cooperation with the army in terms of providing information about the location of the armed men will be conducive in returning security and stability to your areas

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Russian Leaflet Map showing four Safe Corridors to Leave Aleppo

Russian aircraft also dropped leaflets on Aleppo entitled Safe Crossing Points in Aleppo City, telling civilians to leave the city ahead of further anti-rebel advances. Maps of the routes were also sent to the cellphones of the civilians. Three humanitarian corridors would be established for residents to leave. Russia said a fourth corridor would be set up in the north for surrendering rebels. The leaflet said in part:

To avoid unintended casualties among peaceful citizens, the Syrian government is asking you to leave the blocked areas. The Aleppo governor gives you an opportunity to exit through the routes specified in the scheme. Save your life and the lives of your loved ones. Those wanting to leave are to wave a leaflet with their right hand raised above their head and the other hand either around their head or holding a child's hand. Move slowly and follow the commands of the Syrian military. Once near checkpoints, you will be required to turn around to demonstrate that you do not have explosives on your body.

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A Syrian Leaflet depicting Dead bodies on the street.

The text is:

A word to the wise. Think! You might be one of them!

WE PROMISE to preserve the lives of all who lay down their weapons.

The Syrian army surrounded the rebel-held parts of Aleppo city and severed the last remaining supply route a week earlier. On 26 July, the Syrian army offered safe passage to any civilians who wanted to escape the enemy-held areas in eastern Aleppo. Some 300,000 residents are trapped in the eastern part of the city, according to the UN.

Syrian President Bashar al-Assad said:

If the rebels want to return to their normal lives, and abandon their weapons, they will get pardon. Pardon is a good option, I think, to help those people who held weapons for different reasons.

U.S. national security official pointed out the problems of combining the Russian and US war efforts against ISIS:

The Russians want to destroy ISIS to save Assad. We want to destroy ISIS to eliminate a terrorist threat and start a political process to remove Assad.

On 7 August 2016, for the second time, U.S. aircraft warned oil truck drivers in Syria working with ISIS of an American attack. Pilots did not drop warning leaflets in the attack, conducted as Operation Tidal Wave II, named after a World War II mission to bomb oil refineries used by the Nazis. Multiple warplanes destroyed 83 oil tankers Sunday near Albu Kamal, along Syria’s border with Iraq. At the start of the attack:

Pilots fired multiple warning shots to encourage truck drivers to leave the area. Multiple oil tanker trucks departed the area after the warning shots, and were not pursued. The remaining oil trucks were stationary at the time of the strike. Based on our assessment, there were no drivers remaining with the vehicles at the time of the strike.

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Propaganda Graffiti on a Russian Bomb

This bomb is under the wing of a Russian Su-24 “Fencer” fighter-bomber. This bomb bears a greeting written by a Syrian to Sheikh Abdallah Muhammad al Muhaysini. In WWII, American and British flyers would place such messages on bombs to be dropped on Germany or Japan.

Sheikh Abdallah Muhammad al Muhaysini recruits jihadists throughout Syria. On 28 April 2016, he sent two hundred sharia officials from various factions out across Syria in an attempt to recruit 5,000 new “mujahideen.” Muhaysini has ties to al Qaeda and a senior official in Jaysh al Fateh (The Army of Conquest).

In what may be an attempt to have less American boots on the ground in Syria, the Pentagon awarded a no-bid $10 million contract to a private intelligence company to fight ISIS alongside American special operations forces in Syria. The Department of Defense awarded an intelligence analysis contract to private contractor Six3 Intelligence Solutions, a cyber and signals intelligence and surveillance firm. The contract will require Six3 to assist US forces working against ISIS within Syria.

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Radio in a box

Speaking of intelligence, in July, 40 Peshmerga Kurdish soldiers were trained in laptops, digital cameras and a low-power, portable radio kit called a “radio in a box.” Their mission is to destroy the Islamic State’s extremist ideology, using the Vocalis Program, designed by the Marine Corps. The program, launched in January 2016, has already trained and equipped more than 220 members of the Iraqi Ground Forces Command and Counterterrorism Service. Curiously, as the United States recruits Kurds to help in the battle, the Kurds recruit former American servicemen. They are being recruited by the Kurds to join the Peshmerga by signing up via an online application. The website is designed to recruit western warriors, especially Americans.

On 12 August, American military drones reported ISIS militants loading up hundreds of cars, buses and trucks with fighters and civilians and fleeing the city of Manbij, Syria. Manbij controlled one of just two crossings to Turkey from Syria, and its fall will probably deprive the extremists of that route.

On 17 August, in what might be considered an escalation, Iran allowed Russian fighter jets to land at their Hamedan Airbase. Just hours later, Iraq gave the Russian Air Force full access to their airspace in order to combat terrorist forces like ISIS that are occupying eastern Syria. Access to Iraqi airspace is critical because the Russians will be conducting airstrikes against the Islamic State forces that are operating along the Iraqi-Syrian border. This also gives Russia footholds in two Mid-Eastern states.

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Stay away...

On 20 August Iraqi aircraft dropped leaflets over Mosul and Shirgat showing a building exploding from a bomb or an artillery shell. The text was short and sweet.

Stay away from ISIS buildings and sites

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The YPG Command...

On 22 August 2016, leaflets were distributed by Soldiers from the Kurdish YPG (People's Protection Units) and Asayish (Kurdish Security Organization) as they launched a major assault to seize the last government-controlled areas of the northeastern Syrian city of Hasaka, after a Russian mediation team failed to mend the rift between the two sides. The leaflet was all text and said:

The YPA Command in Hasaka to all of the besieged Syrian regime troops and militias in the city: You are targeted by our units, our snipers and our weapons. The battle is over and we will not retreat. Our forces are coming to the city in large convoys so we invite you to drop your weapons and surrender to the nearest security center of our forces or to communicate with us to make the necessary arrangements and you will be treated with the basic concept of fraternity and respect, or else consider yourselves dead.

On the same day Iraqi Air Force aircraft dropped millions of leaflets in Nineveh and Hawija, urging the civilians to move away from ISIS sites. The joint operations command, in a statement, said:

Iraqi Air Force aircraft dropped millions of leaflets and Iraqi flags over Tal Afar, Baaj and Hawija, urging the residents to stay away from ISIS whereabouts. This call was made so that the security forces can carry out its attack plans against ISIS without any obstruction. The leaflets also called upon the civilians to comply with the instructions about the safe passages provided by Joint Operations Command.

On 24 August, Iraqi warplanes dropped thousands of leaflets over the city of Mosul, urging residents to take shelter as an operation to liberate the city from ISIS nears. The leaflets called for civilians in Mosul to stay indoors and away from ISIS positions around the city and to avoid providing militants support. Iraqi forces have leaflets Mosul on several occasions.

On 30 August 2016, the U.S. carried out a successful precision airstrike near Al Bab, Syria targeting senior ISIS leader Abu Muhammad al-Adnani. The airstrike killed ISIS’s chief propagandist, recruiter and architect of external terrorist operations. ISIS admitted that al-Adnani had been “martyred” soon after.

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Mosul Cartoon

About 2 September, Iraqi aircraft dropped thousands of leaflets with cartoons on several areas in Mosul. The cartoons made fun of Daesh and urged people to fight the terrorists. The cartoon shows some Mosul residents standing and talking near a wall marked with the resistance graffiti letter “M.” Around the corner an ISIS fighters seems to be looking for the culprits.

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An Iraqi Air Force Cessna Caravan Leaflet Aircraft.

On 4 September 2016 the Iraqi Air Force dispersed warning leaflets to civilians along with Iraqi flags in various locations at al-Shirqat and Az-Zuwiyah villages in the south of Mosul. The leaflets carry along a warning call to the citizens, issued by the Joint Security Forces. Through the leaflets, the forces have urged the citizens to vacate the city immediately and run for their lives. The leaflets further carried a message urging the citizens to protect themselves from ISIS for they might be used as human shields by the terrorist organization. The leaflets also urged the citizens to comply with the instructions issued and carry their personal identities while going towards the liberated areas.

At the same Time, in early September, Turkey invaded Syrian towns along its border and drove ISIS out. The Free Syrian Army, Turkey-backed Islamist proxies and the Turkish military captured a host of villages including Tweiran, Khaliliyah, Tell ‘Asaad, Ghanmah, Swuydah, Ghandourah and Qebber al-Turkmen. Turkey’s Prime Minister announced that “Our 91-kilometer border has been completely secured.” This means that ISIS members cannot escape into Turkey and foreigners coming to join ISIS cannot enter Syria.

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A landmine disguised as a rock left behind by ISIS in the city of Manbij

As ISIS retreated from Northern Syria they left a landscape littered with thousands of mines and IEDs. It has been estimated that 30,000 such devices have been left behind by ISIS in Manbij and its surrounding areas, with booby traps placed in everyday items such as soda cans, soap bottles, cups and tea kettles. Land mines had been made to look like natural rocks, and even piles of dirt. One of the most shocking devices found was a set of booby traps designed to look like garlic plants, which are used regularly in Syrian cooking.

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Read and Decide…

On 8 September 2016, Syrian military planes once again dropped leaflets over Aleppo. The text is:

Read and decide!!!

To all armed factions and mercenaries inside East Aleppo
The siege around Aleppo is now complete.
We leave you one unique passage to exit.
This is your last chance.
If you don’t leave within the next two days you will perish.

Syrian High Command

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The Inevitable Fate…

On 9 September Syrian helicopters dropped leaflets on Aleppo that depicted a rocket being fired at the upper left and a Russian fighter-bomber at the upper right. At the bottom of the leaflet were three photos of dead insurgents. The leaflet said in part:

This is the inevitable fate for every terrorist carrying weapons and pointing it to the people and the army.
We are coming
The General Command and Armed Forces.

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A Leaflet for Nineveh

On 13 September, about 7 million warning leaflets (400 cartons) were showered by Iraqi C-130J Super Hercules turboprop cargo planes over 16 different areas of Nineveh province, warning the civilians of the imminent attack on ISIS. Two million leaflets were dropped on the center of Mosul city, another 500,000 leaflets on each of the following towns: Hamdaniya, al-Ba’aaj, al-Hazar, and Talafar. 250,000 more leaflets were dropped separately on the towns of Bashiqa, Hamam Alil, al-Shura, al-Mahaliya, al-Hmidat, Bartila, al-Namroud, al-Qahtaniya, Til Abta, al-Ayaziya and al-Qirwan. This is believed to be the largest number of leaflets dropped on a single day since World War II.

The warning leaflets indicated the dates of the government’s victories since October 2014 and urged the civilians to keep away from the ISIS positions since they will be targeted by the jets. Citizens were warned to avoid ISIS bases, warehouses and gatherings and the leaflet encouraged those members of ISIS to leave the organization and join the Army or the Sunni tribal forces before the start of the third and final phase of the operation to retake Nineveh. An arrow pointed to a clock with the words “Mosul: The Hour of Victory” emblazoned on top. The leaflet also requested the residents of Mosul to cooperate with the security forces to bring life in their areas back to its normal phase. Some of the leaflet text is:

The Iraqi forces will continue to liberate your areas from ISIS, therefore we ask you to stay away from the locations of that organization.

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During the Korean and Vietnam Wars there was a belief that far too many leaflets were dropped. This may be the case in the war against ISIS too.

The leaflets are produced by a team of experts composed of university professors, specialists in psychological, social and media sciences as well as intelligence and security personnel tasked with producing propaganda to counter Islamic State. Much of the pro-government propaganda is woven into everyday life in government-controlled areas of the country: Songs mock Islamic State (one of them, “Daesh the Dirty,” insists its fighters smell and flee at the sight of loofahs), stern-eyed generals and analysts perennially predict the group’s demise on talk shows, and billboards extol the heroism of Iraq’s security forces. The leaflets, especially, have played a central role. Over the last two years, Iraqi planes have dropped more than 40 million of them over Islamic State areas.

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ISIS punishment for anyone found qith a leaflet

ISIS retaliated on 14 September by telling the citizens of Mosul that any person found with a propaganda leaflet would immediately be sentenced to 20 lashes. Isis also deployed the Gray Battalion, an elite security formation (Their Special Forces) at the main entrances of Mosul to oversee the processes of inspection of vehicles and people.

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On 25 September, The Syrian Army dropped warning leaflets in the rebel held Tariq al-Bab neighborhood of Aleppo. One leaflet featured eight circles, seven of which showed dead rebel commanders and fighters crossed with an "X", and the last one with a question mark. The text was:

This is your destiny!!!
who is next?

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There are no boundaries...

The second leaflet, from the “state ministry of national reconciliation,” offers a telephone number for civilians to contact to organize their evacuation and assured residents in rebel-held areas:

There are no boundaries between us, break fears within you and come back to your normal life... you are a partner in our country, we are waiting for you.

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Mosul Muqawama Graffiti

Speaking of Mosul, there is apparently an anti-ISIS liberation movement that allegedly sprays the letter “M” on walls all over the city. This is not unlike the occupied European nations that painted the letter “V” for “Victory” on their walls during WWII. The “M” stands for resistance muqawama, and opposition muaarada, and confrontation muwajihah. Perhaps a sign of the liberation movement - Abu Isaac, the ISIS official spokesman, was driving his car through central Mosul when a group of gunmen opened fire on his car. He died shortly afterwards.

In October of 2016, there was a lot of Internet gossip about a deal being made for some of the insurgents to leave Aleppo, Syria. There were reports that large number had left the besieged city. On 15 October there were sightings of Russian helicopters over Aleppo dropping “Surrender or die” leaflets.

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Leaflets over Mosul

On 15 October there were also reports that Iraq and its allies were finally ready to start the long-awaited attack on the ISIS-held city of Mosul. Convoys were shown on news TV heading toward Mosul. Wounded ISIS fighters have been told to go to Raqqa, Syria, the group's de facto capital to escape the battle. Witnesses inside Mosul said they saw six buses loaded with ISIS members leaving the city early Saturday. But, 14 members of ISIS were executed after trying to flee with their families from Mosul to Raqqa, the witnesses said.

Meanwhile, the Iraqi Air Force dropped thousands of 4-page leaflets over Mosul; actually more like magazines or newspapers, to warn residents of a looming offensive on the ISIS-held city. The four-page leaflets tell residents that coalition forces are making advances on Iraq's second-largest city and that no one should panic. Residents are asked to stay away from certain parts of the city, avoid ISIS positions, remain in their homes and seal their windows and doors. A phone number for Mosul residents to report ISIS activity is included. Some of the text of the leaflet is:

It’s victory time. It’s time to celebrate a clean Iraq without Daesh (ISIS) or any dark belief. We are preparing to take action to free Mosul and regain security and stability in the region. Stay at home and don’t believe rumors spread by Daesh. Keep calm and tell your children that it is only a game or thunder before the rain. Women should not scream or shout, to preserve the children's spirit. If you see an army unit, stay at least 25 meters away and avoid any sudden movements. Tape over windows to prevent the glass from shattering. Remove gas cylinders from the house. Avoid the sites of air strikes for at least an hour after a place is bombed. Do not drive if possible.

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To every Iraqi guilty of collaborating with ISIS…

On 18 October, the Iraqi Air Forced dropped colorful leaflets with a flag on one side and a message on the back. I have seen leaflets with two different messages although the flag on the other side is the same on both. Iraq dropped 7 million leaflets to the people of Mosul. The first leaflet said:

In the name of God, most compassionate, most merciful:

To every Iraqi guilty of collaborating with ISIS; know that ISIS has come to an end and will not return! If you desire mercy and amnesty then apprehend foreign or Arab ISIS fighters. Present the captives to the security forces in exchange for your safe-being and amnesty. Know that it was ISIS that brought destruction to your beloved city. Your government is most merciful and Iraq is your guardian.

The Joint Operations Command

The second leaflet said:

In the name of God, most compassionate, most merciful:

To whomsoever has been deluded into joining the false ranks of ISIS; lay down your weapons immediately! You shall not escape unless you lay down your weapons.

The march has commenced and victory is within sight. God alone is the grantor of victory.

The Joint Operations Command

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Escape Routes from Aleppo

On 20 October, Syrian military helicopters dropped hundreds of thousands of leaflets over rebel-held areas in the northern city of Aleppo detailing exit routes for civilians and rebels to leave. The maps highlight six routes for civilians who want to leave the rebel-held areas in eastern Aleppo into government-controlled ones, and two routes for rebels who want to evacuate to other rebel-held areas in the countryside of Aleppo. A three-day humanitarian truce declared by the Syrian army started that day.

The leaflets include a call on the rebels to not waste the chance and to leave or lay down their weapons, offering help for those who do want to leave. The leaflets urged the rebels to lay down their weapons and take advantage of a pardon issued by President Bashar al-Assad for all rebels who surrender themselves to the Syrian army. The Army said it had detailed information on the whereabouts and positions of the rebels in the eastern part of Aleppo city, warning that “any armed man who doesn't take the chance of the declared truce will meet his doomed fate.”

The text on the bottom front of the leaflet is:

Days that Citizens can leave the Terrorist held Aleppo Neighborhoods

1. 20-21-22 October from 0800 to 1600.
2. Get close to the humanitarian corridor with your identification and have no contact with the militants.
3. Stand some distance from Syrian Arab Army checkpoint.
4. Hold this leaflet up with one hand and place your other hand above your head or hold your child with it.
5. Wait for the signal of the Syrian Arab Army units, then turn your back slowly in order to show that you don’t have any chemical or explosive bombs on you.
6. Then continue to walk toward the corridor and follow the instructions that the Syrian Arab Army gives you.

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A second leaflet depicted a green bus on the front and a short message on the back.

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Seize the Last Opportunity...

A third leaflet depicted a dead body at the left and the same green bus as the second leaflet at the right. The image of the bus represented the escape route; the bloodied body, the option of staying put. The message was in part:

Seize the Last Opportunity in Idlib or we will decorate the streets of Aleppo with your brains.

Also on 20 October in Mosul, rebel detachments pasted threatening leaflets on the houses of ISIS militants that to avenge martyrs. These leaflets show the rising popular resistance against ISIS in Mosul. On 18 October a group of armed rebellious residents attacked a headquarters of ISIS and destroyed six patrols in less than five hours.

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Bombs or books?

On 21 October the Syrians dropped this leaflet depicting a young boy with an explosive at left, perhaps part of building an IED. At the right, the same young boy sits in a class at school. The other side of the leaflet depicts the boy watching an insurgent pour bomb-making material at the left and writing a school paper at the right.

Children are for school, not for terrorism
Think of the future of your children

On the same day Iraq’s air force dropped millions of leaflets over Nineveh province and Hawijah on to inform residents of impending operations against ISIS.

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ISIS “Ladies”

During the war against the Islamic State, their ferocity and lack of any mercy toward their enemies made them terrifying. How do you bring fighters like that down to Earth and humiliate them? You could claim that they tried to escape from Mosul dressed as women. The Daily Mail of 25 October 2016 claimed that the cowards dressed like women and tried to join their wives and girlfriends and flee to safety. More likely, The Kurdish Peshmerga troops took captive ISIS fighters and dressed them in woman’s clothes and paraded them in front of the terrified civilians as way to make them a laughing stock and vilify their movement.

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The Lovely Baz Mohammad

ISIS’s top commander Baz Mohammad, who was the terrorist group’s top commander in Northern Afghanistan, was captured in Northern Jawzjan province as he was trying to escape the government troops in disguise according to Alalam. Perhaps it is true.

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Read and Re-read…

On 26 October 2016, this leaflet was dropped on Aleppo. It reads:

Read and re-read. This is the last hope. Save yourselves. If you don't evacuate these areas, you will be eliminated. We have left you a safe path to exit. Save yourselves! You are aware that everyone has abandoned you leaving you alone to face your destiny.

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Cigarette Paper for the Enemy

During WWII, British Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur “Bomber” Harris, famously said that “He had not become Chief of Bomber Command to provide the citizens of the Third Reich with regular supplies of toilet paper.” In Aleppo, the enemy did not use the leaflets as toilet paper; they used them as cigarette paper. Curiously, in earlier wars the United States did drop cigarette paper to the enemy with Allied propaganda printed on it.

On 2 November, it was reported that Terrorists in Aleppo distributed leaflets with demands that its citizens pay 300 dollars each in order to leave the city through humanitarian corridors. Allegedly the leaflets say:

Our leadership is aware of the hardships suffered by civilians in Aleppo due to the bombing and the siege carried out by the Syrian Army. After meeting our brothers, we will allow all those aged under 14 and over 55 to leave Aleppo if they each pay 150,000 Syrian pounds to support our brothers at the front.

This action might have come as a result of Russian General Valery Gerasimov’s statement that the Russian Defense Ministry will introduce a 10-hour humanitarian pause in Aleppo on 4 November from 0900 to 1900 to avoid the senseless killing of civilian victims.

Meanwhile, on 4 November, seeing an ISIS defeat in the near future, frustrated teens in Mosul vowed to avenge the deaths inflicted by the terrorists and covered the homes of ISIS leaders with leaflets and posters, one of which said:

Now you will live in fear of us

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Leaflets dropped over Rastan and Tallish

On the same day, Syrian Army helicopters dropped leaflets over the cities of Rastan and Tallish, where Moscow claims 5,000 ISIS and al-Nusra terrorists are based. Russian-based media claimed a huge ground operation in the area backed by Russian aircraft and troops possibly on the ground, including Putin’s Special Forces unit Spetznaz.

Perhaps as many as three leaflets were dropped. Text on one is:

Don’t make it even worse for yourselves. The Motherland is ready to take you back again. Give up your arms as hundreds of other young men like you have done.

And another aimed at civilians read:

Co-operate with the army and leave the zone of the special operations for the sake of your own life.

A third was designed to look like “religious literature” and said:

You can travel through Syrian checkpoints with this leaflet, and the government will provide shelter, food and medical aid.

Although the U.S. Army was supposed to be leaving Iraq, it announced on 3 November that 1,700 paratroopers of the 82nd Airborne's 2nd Brigade Combat Team, currently stationed at Fort Bragg, would be deployed to Iraq with the objective of advising and assisting Iraqi Security Forces that are attempting to retake Mosul from ISIS.

On 6 November, U.S.-backed Kurdish-dominated Syria Democratic Forces began the liberation of Raqqa, Syria. The goal of the operation, called Angry Euphrates, would be liberating the Syrian city from the militants. The offensive was supported by U.S. air strikes and involved 30,000 fighters.

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Leaflets on their way to Mosul

On 12 November 2016, Iraqi planes once again dropped the same type of leaflet showing a flag on one side and text on the back that they dropped on Mosul on 18 October. You can clearly see the leaflets taped to the outside of the leaflet boxes so the crew knows exactly what it is dropping. The text is reported to say:

To our sons and our people in the Mosul uprising

Your armed forces have entered the gates of your city from all fronts. It fought and is fighting courageously for you and for the great Iraq. The special sorting units are now close to you and amongst you; you will recognize them at the right time.

Stand by them and support them to vanquish the ungodly Daesh. Now is the time to revolt against Daesh for their lines have weakened and they are bowing down. Their leaders are planning their escape. It is the ideal opportunity to destroy them completely, by the hands of your armed forces and with the support of you; the enduring sons and people of the city.

The Command of the “Coming to Nineveh” Operation.

On the same day, a report from Aleppo said:

When the government started to drop leaflets for civilians to leave, people were running to get the leaflets so they could know how to leave. The militia groups then put checkpoints and banned the people from taking any leaflets, and they spread rumors that regime forces would kill those that left and smash them with tanks.

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On 22 November the Syrian military dropped leaflets on Aleppo with a picture of a green coach like those used in the past to transport civilians and rebels from areas retaken by the government. The text was changed from the same type of leaflet that was dropped on 20 October 2016 and now said:

To those involved in carrying weapons, we stretch out our hand to you. Reserve your place before it is too late.

The picture showed the coach on a road marked:

The path of salvation.

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Come out and Play…

On 26 November, the Syrian government dropped leaflets inviting rebels in the war-torn city of Aleppo to a “friendly” football match, as a goodwill gesture. Messages sent to phones and posted on social media also said the government's enemies were welcome to attend the game on Thursday at the Hamdania Stadium. Rebels in the besieged east of the city were offered safe passage. The text is:

Oh, fighters in Aleppo's eastern neighborhoods: The Aleppo Governorate invites you to attend and participate in a friendly football match, as a goodwill initiative in the context of national reconciliation. Anyone wishing to play or attend should come via pre-arranged routes.

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Apparently some people did play, but it appears no guerrillas showed up. An amateur team called Nujum Syria (“The Stars of Syria”) beat a team of instructors from Damascus University by 10 to 9. In Aleppo, the teams of the eastern and western parts of the city took to the field and played to a 5 – 5 tie. The government gave medals to all the participants and wished the citizens to stay united as they did during the game.

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Syrian and Russian aircraft dropped leaflets over Aleppo again on the morning of 29 November 2016. The all-text leaflets said:

READ AND PASS ON

This is your last hope. Save yourselves. If you don’t leave these areas quickly you will be annihilated.

We have left passages open for you to leave. Quickly make a decision…Save yourselves. You know that everyone has given up on you. They left you all alone to face your doom and offered you no help.

The Syrian General Armed Forces.

This same leaflet was dropped earlier over Aleppo and Idlib, about 4 November. Meanwhile, The Russian-backed Syrian army bolstered by Iraqi, Iranian and Lebanese Shiite militias have swept into eastern Aleppo over the past several days, retaking the northern third of the stronghold controlled by a mix of rebel and jihadist factions.

On 4 December 2016, the Syrian military air dropped leaflets across jihadist-held areas of eastern Aleppo, warning the militants to surrender or be neutralized. The leaflets urged militants to surrender their weapons and allow civilians to escape the conflict zone through humanitarian corridors.

On 6 December, US-led coalition warplanes struck a bridge in Daesh-held Mosul in an effort to cut the terrorist group’s supply lines. It is the fifth bridge in Mosul to be hit by coalition jet-fighters.

At the same time, Iraqi military aircraft dropped thousands of leaflets over Mosul’s Al-Hawija and Al-Qaim districts:

The leaflets urged residents to rise up against Daesh and support Iraqi army and security forces. They recounted the army’s recent victories, urged residents to help Iraqi troops against Daesh and warned the terrorist group that its end was nigh.

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A print team member packages leaflets. From there, the leaflets will be loaded into canisters for dispersal over isolated areas to convey messages and information to both civilians and enemy fighters.

A December 2016 report stated that in the previous six months, Alpha Company, 3rd Military Information Support Battalion, of the 4th Group, had processed over 200 print requests and produced over 23 million leaflets in support of Operation Inherent Resolve in both Iraq and Syria. Those leaflets relayed critical information to civilians and terrorists during the liberation of Manbij, Syria, and the capture of Mosul, Iraq. The Company was finishing up its tour and about to return to Ft. Bragg. Leaflets were thought to be an antique propaganda media in this modern electronic age, but they made a comeback in the war on ISIS. Recipients on the ground will sometimes take photos of the leaflets and post them on social media thus amplifying their message.

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A Turkish Leaflet to ISIS

The Turkey-supported Free Syrian Army has attacked and occupied several small villages along the Turkish border with Syria, allegedly to fight the ISIS terrorists but possibly to fight Kurd forces that the Turks also see as an enemy. Turkey launched its Operation Euphrates Shield in late August to ensure a terror-free corridor over Turkey's southern border with Syria. On 12 December 2016, there was a report of Turkish Air Force planes dropping leaflets over the ISIS occupied village of al-Bab located to the northeastern part of Aleppo. The leaflet text is:

In the name of God, the most compassionate, the most merciful,

Dear people of al-Bab,

Do not let the Devil-serving Daesh terrorist organization use you for their purposes.

The Free Syrian Army forces, sacrificing their lives for your freedom and salvation, and the Republic of Turkey which opens their gates to their brothers in need strive to bring security and peace to your lands.

Help us. Until we free your territories from these traitors, and in order to protect them, evacuate your loved ones to safer places.

With the will of God, Victory is near.

God's peace and help be with you.

On 12 December, The jihadist rebels of Fatah Halab and Jaysh Al-Fateh accepted terms of surrender in east Aleppo after withstanding a two month long siege. The jihadist rebels and all civilians would be allowed safe passage from the east Aleppo pocket to the Anadan plains near Mount Simeon - no activists, civilians, or jihadists will be arrested. Apparently, Aleppo is now free. Will Mosul be next?

On 16 December, it was reported that the United States was training Shiite militias for the liberation of Mosul. The Shiites have been backed by Iran in the past and on occasion have fought the Americans. This would seem to be a major shift in tactics by the U.S. The fall of Mosul would seem to be the end of ISIS as a major power.

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The Iraqi air force air dropped 4 million letters to the long-suffering residents of Mosul on 22 December 2016, to provide them courage and support while they await liberation from ISIS. The operation was called Letters to Mosul. 2,160 hand written letters to the people were photocopied and reproduced. The letters reassures the residents of Mosul that they have not been forgotten and that the rest of Iraq is standing with them, waiting to welcome them back in solidarity when ISIS is defeated. An example of one of the messages is:

Mosul, I send my love and respect and appreciation to you, my family. You have my respect and affection. You are part of us and no matter what happens we will keep you in our heart, you people of patience and endurance. Know that no matter what happens you stay in our heart and we will fight to free you. Whatever happens do not give up; we’re fighting for you.

The news was also good from Libya after the fall of ISIS’s last remaining stronghold in Sirte in December 2016. The U.S. military conducted 495 precision air strikes against ISIS to support the Libyan Government of National Accord as part of Operation Odyssey Lightning.

On 17 December, The Turkish Air Force dropped the same leaflet they had dropped on al-Bab on 12 December (see above) over the city for a second time.

On 14 January 2017, In Idlib Province, Syrian helicopters dropped leaflets on Jisr al-Shughur over ISIS positions, depicting dead bodies and the text:

Reconsider your thoughts and think about the consequences – this is the inevitable fate for every terrorist who points weapon in the face of the army and people.

On 17 January Syrian helicopters dropped leaflets on Jisr al-Shughur city and Idlib Province again. The leaflets said:

Oh armed person, it is truth’s time. The world is changing rapidly. The army is coming. Waiting can cost you your life. Do not hesitate. Hurry up and drop your weapons to save your life. 40 kinds of armaments are waiting for you; capable of destroying targets on the ground, underground, shelters and even the fortified areas.

On 20 January, Syrian helicopters dropped leaflets on Kafr Hamra town and its surroundings in the northwestern countryside of Aleppo. The leaflets said in part:

The final message

The decision of eliminating terrorism and restoring security and stability to the country is irreversible has no mercy. The next strikes will be more violent, harsher and more powerful. We have enough power to crush terrorism and erase it from the face of the earth. We advise you to drop your weapons and return to the lap of the nation.

The General Command of the Armed Forces

The leaflets appeared again on 31 January 2017 when Iraqi aircraft dropped them over western Mosul urging civilian residents to brace for impending army operations to drive out ISIS. The leaflets called on residents to cooperate with Iraqi military personnel with a view to limiting civilian casualties and facilitating the operation. The text said in part:

Your enemy[Daesh]has been defeated in eastern Mosul. Your armed forces are now preparing to advance on the western side [of the city].

The Iraqi Army is currently awaiting orders to advance on western Mosul. In October 2016, the Iraqi army, backed by U.S. aircraft and local allies on the ground, began the campaign to retake Mosul, which has been in Daesh hands since mid-2014. Eastern Mosul was freed from ISIS occupation after three months of fighting.

On 6 February it was reported that the Iraqi Army was using the corpses of dead ISIS fighters as PSYOP. Instead of burying them they are left to rot on the street, some still wearing explosive suicide vests. The Army is apparently bothered by the fact that many residents of Mosul welcomed and collaborated with ISIS. The dead bodies are a reminder and a threat of what can happen if you are with the terrorists. The corpses might also deter Islamic State sleeper cells, which are highly effective and distributed across the country. One citizen spoke of life under ISIS rule:

Do you know what smoking one, just one cigarette meant? Twenty-five lashes in a public square where people were forced to watch you suffer. If your beard length did not meet their requirements, that was a month in jail and 100 lashes in public.

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Iraqi Leaflets to the Citizens of Mosul

On 18 February Iraqi forces once again dropped millions of leaflets over Mosul promising the end of ISIS occupation. Iraqi forces have dropped leaflets with this same general message on several occasions. The Iraqis hold much of Eastern Mosul, and now intend to free Western Mosul. The leaflets said in part:

Your armed forces are advancing in the direction of the right [Western] side, relying on God. Get ready to welcome the sons of your armed forces and to cooperate with them, as your brothers on the left side have done, in order to reduce losses and speed up the conclusion of the battle.

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A Box of Leaflets aimed at ISIS

Other leaflets were dropped that warned ISIS militants:

Lay down your weapons and surrender before you face your inevitable fate at the hands of our heroic forces,

Capt. Stephen Von Jett of the 4th Military Information Support Group (Airborne) talks about Operation Inherent Resolve leafleting against ISIS in Defense Video Imagery Distribution System. He mentions the Media Operations team working at the Military Information Support Task Force - Central, in Al Udeid Airbase, Qatar. Soldiers from Alpha Company, 3rd MISB, 4th MISG, deployed to the MISTF-C to provide their product development and print production skills in the fight against the extremists. While there, they processed over 200 print requests and produced over 23 million leaflets in support of Operation Inherent Resolve in both Iraq and Syria. He says:

Across Syria, Iraq and numerous other countries under siege by terrorists, these messages penetrate the thin veil of control. The clearly-drawn images and simple messages are passed hand to hand throughout the community. Even those who can’t read understand the concise illustrations. They provide more than valuable information -- they provide hope.

On 19 February, Iraqi again leafleted Western Mosul. The leaflets said in part:

To those of you who were intrigued by the ISIS ideology, this is your last opportunity to quit your work with ISIS and to leave those foreigners who are in your homeland. Stay at home, raising the white flags as the forces approach.

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Death to Daesh

Graffiti is a form of propaganda, a message written secretly that all can read. As the Iraqis continued to gain in Mosul, graffiti such as this is found on walls within the city. It was reported that ISIS arrested 20 people in relation to this comment. The text is:

Death to Daesh [ISIS], down with the Islamic State

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Letter Leaflets for West Mosul

On 24 February 2017, letters from residents from eastern Mosul to those in the ISIS-held western half were dropped ahead of the Iraqi army's offensive to take it back. The letters told of the happiness of those Mosul Iraqis that had been freed of occupation by ISIS and sent their best wishes, prayers, and assurances to their western brothers of good treatment after their liberation. Iraqi aircraft had distributed letters on Mosul once before on 22 December 2016. Those leaflets were letters sent by the residents of Central and Southern Iraq offering encouragement.

On 18 March 2017, The U.S. claimed that it does its best to reduce civilian casualties in ISIS-held Raqqa before conducting airstrikes by air dropping leaflets. The leaflets apparently say:

ISIS is using boats and ferries to transport weapons and fighters. Do not use ferries or boats, air strikes are coming.

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Your Life is Worthless…

On 27 March, U.S. aircraft dropped leaflets over West Mosul depicting what appears to be an ISIS leader giving a written order to one of his fighters. The shadow on the brick wall implies the order is an invitation to die since it is a hangman’s noose. The text on the back of the leaflet is:

Your life is worthless and you are fighting a battle that you already lost, your ISIS commanders have run away with the money and weapons.

On 31 March, The Syria Democratic Forces shelled the Safsafa farm area, while Coalition’s warplanes dropped leaflets over al-Tabaqa city which is controlled by ISIS that read:

Drop your weapons and hand over yourselves to the Syria Democratic Forces immediately! We give you our word: any fighter from Daesh that chooses to stop following their leaders to the road of destruction will be treated well. The Syria Democratic Forces do not believe in killing Muslim brothers.

On April 15, Syrian government troops used artillery to disseminate leaflets calling on militants in Qaboun, a north-eastern neighborhood of the country's capital of Damascus, to lay down arms and receive amnesty. The Syrian armed forces command hoped that the guerrillas would accept President Bashar Assad's offer of amnesty for rebels who lay down their arms so that there will be no need for launching an operation in Qaboun, which would lead to casualties. The leaflets were delivered using ten 122-mm special shells. They differ from the operational combat shells by having a very small detonating charge, designated for dispersing leaflets. Each shell contained 1,000 leaflets of A6 size. The A6 paper is 105 x 148 mm, or 4.1 x 5.8 inches.

In general this article is done. The actions and leaflets used in the conflict in Syria and Iraq have become routine and we see battles for a section of a city going on for weeks and months and the same leaflets promising liberation dropped on an almost daily basis. I will only add leaflets in the future when they are exceptional in relationship to their message or political situation.

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De-Confliction Leaflets

As I mentioned above, these American leaflets are exceptional. Up to the end of May 2017, the U.S, leaflets attacked ISIS, Al Qaida and its allies and various terrorist elements. This ended about May 27, when for the first time the U.S. threatened the legitimate Syrian Army forces. Syria has the backing of Russia, China to a lesser degree, and Iran and Hezbollah. The United States is using Free Syrian Army forces (deserters from the regular Syrian Army) some Turks and the Kurds.

The United States forces hold an area near Syria's southern border with Iraq which they call “the protected area” which is about 55 kilometers around where the U.S. and coalition forces have been operating. U.S. and British Special Forces officially use the facility to train Syrian opposition forces for the fight against ISIS, but of course they also wish to overthrow President Assad. The Syrian forces have moved toward this area and been threatened with bombing by the U.S. Forces. The Syrians, who are the legitimate government, have refused to retreat. A problem could occur if they call for air support from their Russian allies. One assumes level heads will prevail, but there is a possibility that this area could leave to a military action that involves the major powers. U.S. military commanders are relaying the warning to Russian officials in daily “de-confliction” phone calls designed to prevent accidents across Syria's territory and skies.

90,000 of the leaflets were dropped about 27-28 May, showing a map of the area in question along with map coordinates, and an arrow pointing to a checkpoint where the Syrians are expected to return to. There are two messages. They are:

Any movement toward Tanf will be seen as hostile intent and we will defend our forces. Return to the Zara checkpoint.

You are within an established de-confliction zone; leave the area immediately.

Addendum

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Although not actual propaganda, I thought I would add this certificate to the story. I was surprised when I received a Christmas gift of an American flag from my grandson-in-law, stationed on the U.S. Aircraft carrier Theodore Roosevelt. It came with a certificate stating that it was flown over Iraq by a Navy Super Hornet as part of the fight against ISIS. This is my personal anti-ISIS leaflet.

The author encourages anyone with further information on this campaign to write him at sgmbert@hotmail.com