SGM HERB FRIEDMAN (Ret.)
There were thousands of leaflets produced by the United Nations forces during the Korean War from 27 June 1950 to 27 July 1953. The number of different leaflets is staggering and the highest numbered leaflets are in the 9,000 range. That does not mean there were 9000 leaflets since some numbers were unused and some leaflets not approved. But, it is still an amazing number for such a short war. Many of the U.N. leaflets were prepared in the Korean or Chinese language, and in some cases the same general leaflet was produced in each language with a different code number and just a few minor changes. For instance, leaflet 0100 is a small orange leaflet produced by the 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet group on 19 October 1951 in the Korean language. The theme is: Escape. The United Nations Command promises you food, clothing and good treatment. The same leaflet was prepared for the Chinese numbered 0700.
I have written eight heavily illustrated articles on the propaganda leaflets of the Korean War. I did not think there was much more to say, but as I studied my files recently I noticed that there were quite a few named campaigns. I mean by that, leaflets were prepared to be used with a very specific theme, sometimes at a very specific period. There are thousands of general leaflets that are just dropped without a named campaign. Those that we will mention in this article were all part of a PSYOP plan. In every case, when we look at the data sheet prepared with the leaflet the plan is mentioned. We see such names as Plan Liberator, Plan Mist and Plan Strike, to name just a few.
In some cases there are just one or two leaflets in the campaign. In other cases there are a half-dozen. I could show numerous leaflets for each named campaign but I want this to be a short article so I will just select one propaganda piece that I think tells the story of that plan. I intend to list them in an alphabetical order though that will take some out of chronological order. I will mention what the purpose of the plan was in those cases where it is clear. There will be cases I suspect where this is not clear and in those cases we will hazard an opinion. This article is not to be considered complete; it is a work in progress. I am sure as we study more propaganda leaflets we will find more named plans. When we find them we will add them. Korean War veterans with knowledge of these plans are encouraged to write the author.
EIGHTH U.S. ARMY KOREA FAR EAST COMMAND
Eighth U.S. Army Korea Patch
G2 - Intelligence
From the beginning of the Korean conflict until early 1951 psychological warfare activities in Korea were under the control of the G2 (Intelligence) section, Far East Command. The reader should understand that this system of military management was originally used by the German General Staff and broke up the leadership to smaller controllable sections such as G1 (Personnel), G2 (Intelligence), G3 (Operations) and G4 (Logistics). On 24 January 1951 General Order Number 40 was published transferring responsibility for Psychological Warfare from the Assistant Chief of Staff; G2 (Intelligence) to the Assistant Chief of Staff, G3 (Operations).
On 23 January 1951 a 36-page technical memorandum entitled Evaluation and Analysis of Leaflet program in the Korean Campaign June- December 1950 was written by William Daugherty and published as a secret document by the Operations Research Office (ORO). On the same day, the secret technical memorandum US PSYWAR Operations in the Korean War by George S. Pettee was released by ORO. Both were slightly critical of the US propaganda campaigns of the first six months of the Korean War. This may have led directly to the responsibility being shifted from Intelligence to Operations.
Some of the statistical comments in the two reports tell us about the leaflet production in those early days of the war. Daugherty says in part:
The first leaflets were dropped in Korea on 28 June. From 28 June to 5 December 1950, 142,576,000 leaflets, all strategic in character were prepared by PWB, G2. 126,600.000 of these were dropped in Korea by B-29s of the 98th Bomb Group The remaining 16 million were dispatched to Eighth Army and X Corps for dissemination in lower echelons, either by artillery shell or liaison plane [these leaflets were printed in Japan and forwarded to Korea] Through 28 December, the PWB G2 had prepared 52 different general purpose Korean-language leaflets, and 19 Parachute News [a newspaper leaflet]. In addition, seven [locally printed] Korean-language leaflets were approved by EUSAK and X Corps headquarters Through 5 December, 14,760,000 Chinese leaflets were disseminated (7008 to 7016). Chinese-language leaflets 7017 to 7021 were dropped between 5 December and 28 December.
Later, Daugherty mentions 72 leaflets in Korean and 14 in Chinese. He explains that there were several revisions of earlier leaflets, and this explains the difference in the total number of leaflets printed. Daugherty concludes:
An analysis of the leaflet texts leads to the conclusion that it is doubtful that the total effort has been highly successful It is recommended that Psychological Warfare Branch undertake immediately a reorganization .
Pettees data seems to be a bit later since he comments that about 160,000,000 leaflets have been printed with nine-tenths dropped by aircraft and one-tenth disseminated by artillery or local aircraft. He says the war is 205 days old as he writes his report. He mentions the 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Companys arrival in September 1950 [see below], but says they were inoperative at the start of the year due to supply [still in Yokohama, Japan] and personnel difficulties. The B-29 dissemination is from Yokota, near Tokyo. The bomber holds 32 M-16-A leaflet bombs, each containing 22,500 leaflets. He says that tactical dissemination has improved, using the USAF T-6 trainer, the USMC F-4U Corsair, and the C-47 transport. Artillery dissemination has fallen into disuse because of various problems. Pettees numbers mention the target audience; 102,702,000 leaflets to enemy troops, 20,757,000 leaflets to Communist held territory, and 43,921,000 leaflets to friendly and liberated areas. He recommends that for efficiency PSYWAR be given specific backing by G3. In fact, the Army soon gave G3 the entire operation.
G3 - Operations
PSYWAR responsibility was assigned to the new G3 Psychological Warfare Division. Many of the early Propaganda leaflets were prepared by EUSAK G3. The Projects Branch, Psychological Warfare Division came into being and had as its responsibility the creation and development into final form for reproduction the texts, art work, format of leaflets, and production of scripts and tape recordings for use by ground and air Loudspeaker units. Projects branch produced for printing a monthly average of twenty-five propaganda leaflets per week during the period of hostilities; a total of 711 leaflets were processed for final printing and distribution. The leaflets used in early psychological warfare operations were printed in Japan with the cost of the printing being underwritten by the American Embassy in Korea and the Economic Cooperation Authority (ECA) Mission to Korea. Printing was also done by the Far East Command printing plant and local indigenous printing establishments.
The leaflet production would soon fall under the PSYWAR Company and Group sent to Korea, although Eighth Army still retained overall control.
Albert G. Brauer served in the Eighth United States Army Korea (EUSAK) as Chief of the Projects Branch, Psychological Warfare Division, G3 (Operations) Section from February 1951 to January 1952. Under his direction he transformed a small nucleus of relatively untrained personnel into an integrated team of writers, artists and oriental language specialists of professional caliber who produced many hundreds of propaganda leaflets and voice messages for dissemination by aircraft, artillery and by air and ground loudspeaker units. Although his archives may not be complete he has listed the first and last code number for each type of Eighth Army leaflet. The numbers are not in order; there were two units producing leaflets in Korean and Chinese and the code numbers are all interspersed:
EUSAK Psychological Warfare Section
Korean Language Leaflets Subseries: 8009 8422. 248 leaflets total.
EUSAK Psychological Warfare Section
Chinese Language Leaflets Subseries: 8014 8908. 195 leaflets total.
General Headquarters (GHQ), Far East Command, Military Intelligence Section
Psychological Warfare Branch: Korean Subseries: 1045 - 9015 117 leaflets total.
General Headquarters (GHQ), Far East Command, Military Intelligence Section
Psychological Warfare Branch: Chinese Subseries: 0700 7234 78 leaflets total.
THE FIRST RADIO BROADCASTING AND LEAFLET GROUP
The 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet Group Mascot - "The Ganders"
Most of the leaflets we will show in this article were prepared by the 1st Radio broadcasting and Leaflet Group (1st RB&L Group). I have written about this unit in the past and here is a very short history of their Korean War service.
The recruitment of staff for the first PSYOP Group to be deployed to Korea is mentioned in a reunion book entitled Psychological Warfare in Korea - 1952 Life and Times of the First Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet Group - 50 years Later, Klein, Herguth and McConaughey, RHP Books, 2002:
The Army, to find enlisted men for jobs that required a university degree, set up a special classification and assignment unit at Ft. Myer, in Arlington, Virginia. Towards the end of 1950, orders went out to send all draftees with college degrees to Ft. Myer after they finished basic training to be interviewed for possible special assignments. It was through this process that draftees with experience in journalism, radio, advertising and graphic arts found themselves in the 1st RB&L Group.
The unit was formed in Ft. Riley Kansas. It was created by Fifth Army General Order #176, April 1951. The first commander was LTC Homer E. Shields, former Chief of Psywar section of the Sixth Army Group, and later executive officer to General McClure, head of the Psychological Warfare Division, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF). General McClure personally selected Shields for this post.
The Group arrived in Tokyo, Japan, on 6 August 1951. They were headquartered on the 6th floor of Empire House. The enlisted personnel were quartered in the Japanese government Finance Building on B Avenue in the heart of Tokyo. The Officers were billeted in Officer's Clubs around Tokyo. The group consisted of three companies.
Paul Linebarger discusses them in Psychological Warfare, Combat Forces Press, Washington DC, 1954. He says:
The Headquarters and Headquarters Company contained the command, administrative, supervisory and creative personnel necessary for propaganda operations. The 3rd Reproduction Company contained intricate equipment and skilled personnel capable of producing leaflets and newspapers of varying sizes and multiple colors. The 4th Mobile Radio Broadcasting Company was designed to replace or augment other means of broadcasting radio propaganda.
Charles H. Briscoe writes about the Group in Veritas, Volume 7, No. 1, 2011. He says that the Headquarters Company was based in Tokyo, Japan, with the strength of 19 officers, three warrant officers and 111 enlisted personnel.
The Third Reproduction Company was based in Motosumiyoshi, Japan. Its strength was three officers and 54 enlisted personnel. They were tasked with leaflet production and were authorized cameras, lithographic plates, printing presses and the use of USAF aircraft to include C-47s, C-46s, B-26s and B-29s.
The Fourth Mobile Radio Broadcasting Company was based in Tokyo, Pusan and Seoul. It consisted of 16 officers and 99 enlisted personnel. It was authorized various mobile radio broadcasting systems to transmit Psywar messages in the field in a variety of languages and dialects.
THE FIRST LOUDSPEAKER AND LEAFLET COMPANY
1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet (L&L) Company patch and Insignia
The few named campaign leaflets that were not printed by the 1st RB&L Group were printed by the 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company (1st L&L Company). Linebarger says about this unit:
The Group's junior partner in the conduct of PSYWAR support operations was the Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company. This unit specifically supported an army in the field with adequate propaganda support...its targets were smaller, lived under unusual circumstances, and presented highly vulnerable, rapidly changing propaganda opportunities..."
In the fall of 1950, the Armys small Technical Information Detachment of four officers and twenty enlisted was notified that it was to be changed to a Loudspeaker and leaflet Company on 1 September 1950. It was put on alert for Korea and sent from Ft. Riley, Kansas, to Seattle, and then on to Korea, arriving on 4 November 1950. The unit was reorganized in January 1951 as the First Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company with a complement of 8 officers, ninety-nine enlisted men, 3 printing presses, 12 loudspeakers, and 27 vehicles, and assigned to a newly created Psychological Warfare Division (PWD) operating within G-3 of the Eighth Army in Korea. The 1st L&L Company became operational April 1951 and 9 loudspeaker teams were dispatched to divisions in the field. The First L&L Company prepared leaflets in the field throughout the Korean War, serving until 21 February 1955. According to their records, the leaflets are coded from 8174 to 8759. They printed 660 different leaflets, 280,663,500 in total. They used three Harris printing presses and printed about two Korean language leaflets for every one targeting the Chinese. Remember, this is just the Leaflet Company and does not include the leaflets prepared by EUSAK and the Group. The Company loudspeaker teams made 14,756 broadcasts to the enemy. They claim 3,688 prisoners came over as a direct result of their broadcasts.
NAMED LEAFLET CAMPAIGNS
It would appear to be easy to discuss these themes and state exactly who the target was and the purpose of the leaflet. This is not the case. In some cases where there are several leaflets, the purpose of the plan and the desired result is changed from one leaflet data sheet to another. I could guess which is the most correct, but since the plans may have had more than one purpose, if the sheets state there were two or three purposes for a specific plan I will combine and list them all. This will not happen often, but it is possible that as the plan progressed, additional propaganda gains were added to the desired result.
I should also give credit to Mark R. Jacobson who wrote the 2005 doctoral dissertation Minds Then Hearts: U.S. Political and Psychological Warfare During the Korean War. After I wrote this article I ran across his dissertation and he covered the named plans in some depth so I went back and added some additional information to my descriptions.
Cut Sheet for Leaflet 7152
Most of the basic information found in this article comes directly from the data sheets (cut sheets) prepared for each leaflet. They give complete information about the leaflets: who printed them; dates, purpose; language; and in some rare cases, the number printed. The sheet we depict above was for Plan Invader leaflet 7152. Notice that it shows the First Radio and Broadcasting Group as the printer, gives the date, the title, the target, remarks and then a complete translation. These sheets were prepared with just about every Korean War leaflet.
Plan 52/19 was designed to get farmers of Hwang Hao-Do to withhold rice from Communist collectors. The leaflet is entitled Hide your rice and depicts a Korean farmer and his wife burying their rice. This leaflet was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group on 25 October 1952. Text on the front is:
Farmers of Hwang Hao Do HIDE YOUR RICE!
DONT STARVE FOR COMMUNISM!
The back has three panels showing Farmer and wife completing the burial of the rice, Telling the Communist rice collector that they have none, and giving the rice to anti-Communist guerrillas. The text is:
Now they wont find our rice.
How can we pay the tax without a harvest? This is all we have.
Anti-Communist patriots! Here is my humble contribution.
Note: One of the original provinces of Korea. In 1945, Korea was divided into Soviet and American zones of occupation, and part of the province fell under Communist rule in the north, the rest under the Republic of Korea in the south. In the above leaflets the UN is asking those farmers just above and below the border to hide their rice from the Communists.
Note: An almost identical leaflet was produced coded 1236, dated 30 October 1952, identical in just about every way but not mentioning the farmers of Hwang Hao-do, but instead just saying:
North Korean farmers
HIDE YOUR RICE!
The back of this second leaflet has the same text as 1232.
Leaflet 1237 is entitled Pretend sickness and was printed by the 1st RB&L Group on 10 November 1952. It depicts Communist labor crews rounding up workers for the harvest. The leaflet suggests that workers pretend to be sick to avoid the labor.
This leaflet depicts a snake wearing a North Korean Army cap squeezing a civilian on the front and a 3-panel cartoon of Communist troops taking all the food from a farmer on the back. It was printed by the 1st RB & L Group on 25 November 1952 in the Korean language. The text on the front is:
THS COMMUNIST SQUEEZE
The text on the back is:
Agricultural instructors Propagandists Self-defense squad Cell chairman Appraisal committee and Peoples committee.
He gets a Hero certificate. Farmers of Hwang Hao Do, dont work for the Communists! Hide your grain!
This plan 52/19 leaflet is called Farmers of Hwang Hai Do Help the Partisans. Leaflets 1249 and 1250 are almost identical with just a change in color and a minor change in the wording. This leaflet depicts farmers aiding the partisans fight the Communists. The leaflet was printed on 1 December 1952 as part of Plan 52/19 designed to induce the farmers to assist the partisans. The leaflet depicts a South Korean patriot aiming a rifle at a terrified Communist. The back depicts farmers telling the guerrillas of Communist movement and partisans attacking a Communist supply train. Text on the front is:
Farmers of Hwang Hae Do Province! The Anti-Communist special forces are fighting to free you from the Communist oppression.
Text on the back is:
Farmers of Hwang Hao-Do
Protect the partisan and he will protect you.
The identical image appears on leaflet 1252. The leaflet was produced by the 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet Group on 1 December 1952. The text on the front is now:
Farmers of North Korea!
The partisan is fighting for your freedom from Communist domination.
The back of the leaflet has two cartoon panels where farmers are depicted giving information to partisans so that they can attack a North Korean supply movement of cattle and other goods. The text is:
Farmers of Hwang North Korea
Protect the partisan and he will protect you.
The same image appears on Leaflet 1253, but it is blue instead of red. The main difference in the text is that it does not mention Hwang Hao Do, but on the front simply addresses farmers and on the back says North Korean farmers. The leaflet was prepared by the 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet Group on 8 December 1952, in Korean as part of plan 52/19.
Other leaflet in this series are 1237 (Pretend Sickness) and 1244 (Communism drives the weary).
PLAN 1191/3 was designed to induce North Korean civilians to let the war pass them by and to enlist their aid for the Allied partisans and United Nations troops. This leaflet was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group on 23 February 1953 and entitled Special Appeal. The leaflet depicts Koreans fleeing to the hills while aircraft attack trucks on the road and North Korean civilians helping a United Nations airman in a parachute. The text is:
Let the War pass you by! Save your life now!
Flee to the hills! Stay off the road!
Help free Korea now! Aid the partisans! Aid the U.N. troops!
Plan Blizzard used New Year and the U.N.s efforts to restore peace as its theme. It capitalized on the significance of the New Year season in the Orient. It emphasized UN devotion to the cause of peace and sought to awaken feelings about home that Chinese and Korean soldiers, as well as Korean citizen might harbor.
At New Year's, Koreans exchange greetings and wishes couched in poetic form. This campaign ran from 24 December 1951 to 26 December 1951. The leaflets were prepared by the 1st RB&L Group in both Korean and Chinese. The leaflet above depicts two children spinning tops symbolic of New Year festivities. The text is:
Peace for the New Year
This miniature leaflet depicts a holiday lantern and was printed by the 1 RB&L Group in Chinese on 19 December 1951. There were three leaflets in this lantern series. The text is:
The United Nations wishes you a happy New Year
The United Nations seeks to achieve peace on earth
Some other leaflets in Plan Blizzard are 0101 (Peace for the New Year), and 0702 (The UN wishes you a happy New Year).
Plan Captive was designed to reinforce antagonism of North Korean civilians toward the Communist regime for its refusal to exchange sick and wounded prisoners of war.
This leaflet, entitled Captive No. 7, was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group on 12 March 1953 in Korean as part of Plan Captive. It targets the families of sick and wounded North Koreans in the United Nations hands. This leaflet targets Hwang Hae Do Province and says in part:
From the beginning of the Korean War, the UN Command has tried to exchange seriously sick and wounded prisoners of war, who are fit to travel, under the provisions of Article 109 of the Geneva Convention. On 13 December 1953, the League of Red Cross Societies appealed for their immediate exchange Of the more than 6,000 sick and wounded prisoners of war in UN hands, here is a part of the list from your province .
The names and units of prisoners from this province were printed on the front and back of the leaflet.
Leaflet 1297 (Captive No. 5) was printed by the 1st RB&L Group on 25 March 1953. It appears that all the leaflets use the same image on the front, a United Nations doctor treating North Korean prisoners of war. This leaflet is addressed to the families of the sick and wounded soldiers in Pyongam-Nam Do Province. Each leaflet bears the names of soldiers from a difference province. This leaflet bears the names, serial number and units of wounded soldiers in UN hands. Some of the text is:
From the beginning of the Korean War, the United Nations has wanted to exchange sick and wounded prisoners of war On 22 February 1953, UN General Clark personally sent a message to Kim Il-sung to tell him that the UN is ready immediately to exchange such prisoners His message has been broadcast daily to the Korean Communists since then, but the Communists have not replied. Of the more than 6,000 sick and wounded prisoners of war in UN hands, here is a part of the list from your province .
Plan Cities was designed to turn North Korean college students against the Communist regime because of suppression of free education. The leaflet depicts Kim Il Sung acting as a professor holding a book entitled Russian Revolution while college students wear a chain entitled Political Training. This leaflet was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group on 11 March 1953. Some of the following phrases are on the blackboard:
Song of Marshal Stalin Freedom is Communism Lets destroy underground activities Marshal Kim Il Sung
Books on the floor and a sign are labeled:
World Peace Democracy Human Rights Free World
Confiscated books. Anyone who touches these will be judged a reactionary.
We are not sure exactly how Plan Commando was designed, but we know that the leaflets in this series sometimes depicted the number of Korean dead and wounded. As more Koreans became casualties, the number grew on later leaflets. Sometimes, the number did not represent casualties, but instead, North Koreans who had defected to the South. It was hoped that seeing this large number would demoralize the North Koreans and perhaps motivate them to surrender to the Allies. The text on leaflet 8170 is:
184,762 What Does this Figure Mean?
184,762 of your comrades have come over to the U.N. forces. They are safe and are living comfortably behind the U.N. lines.
Think. Will you live or die?
Do not be cannon fodder for the Communists. Come over to the U.N. lines at once. You are guaranteed good treatment.
Another leaflet in this series is 8167 (13,933, what is this number? 13,933 of your comrades dead and wounded in the last six days).
Plan Deadline was designed to portray the UN negotiators as working hard at the Armistice talks to bring peace to the peninsula. It attacked the Korean Peoples Army and the Chinese Peoples Volunteer Army. Deadline, later renamed Hold-Up, and then Deadlock, sought to portray the United Nations Command as working to restore peace through an armistice while at the same time, showing that it was the Communists who were hindering and obstructing efforts for a peace agreement. This campaign ran from 28 November 1951 to 27 December 1951. The leaflet above is entitled Discomforts of War. It depicts North Korean soldiers sitting in the snow around a small fire trying to get warm. The leaflet was prepared by the 1 RB&L Group on 10 December 1951. The text is:
Do we have to fight again this coming winter?
This leaflet plays on the fears that all soldiers have. Many do not fear dying, but the idea of being horribly wounded or disfigured is something that everyone is frightened of. Here a North Korean soldier is depicted with both hands missing. He cries as he thinks of his wife and children. The title of the leaflet is: The wounded soldiers future. He knows that because of the Communists stalling at the peace table he has suffered catastrophic injuries. The text is:
If the Soviet Communist leaders agreed to end the war sooner
Maybe I'll still have both hands to hold my child.
Some other leaflets in this named campaign are 1133 (How to stay alive Good treatment according to the Geneva Convention, 1135 (Korean New Year), 1136 (Think of your family-Korean), 7113 (Happy prisoners of war), 7116 (Think of your family-Chinese), 7117 (Wounded soldiers future) and 7187 (Chinese aid slavery in North Korea)
Plan Deadlock was designed to show that the Communist Chinese are helping Communists to enslave Korea and stalling at the peace table, while the UN is working toward peaceful reunification and Korean freedom. Plan Deadlock was originally Plan Hold out. It was inaugurated in July 1952. Plans Deadlock and Hold-Up largely pursued the same aims and used the same themes as did Deadline. The leaflet above depicts the Korean people in chains watched by an armed Communist soldier with the hammer and sickle symbol. The leaflet was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group on 21 August 1952. Some of the text is:
Aid for Slavery
Aid for Freedom The United Nations
Chinese soldiers you fight for slavery. While the Communists stall at Panmunjom, puppets of Russia send you to death in their war against the Korean people. They want to enslave Korea as they have enslaved China
US AID FOR FREEDOM IS THE AID KOREA NEEDS AND WANTS
YOU ARE AIDING KOREA INTO SLAVERY
This leaflet was printed by the 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet Group, dated 23 May 1953 and aimed at Chinese troops in Korea. The image on the front depicts Communist, Republic of Korea and American officers meeting at the peace conference table. The text says in part:
The whole world wants peace, but Communists ordered by Moscow, create a stalemate!
The Allied officers say: This is the just and humanitarian way to achieve a real permanent peace in Korea.
The Communist officer replies: Impossible!
The rest of the text gives a timeline of all the UN attempts at making peace and the Communist methods used to sabotage it.
This Deadlock leaflet depicts chained Koreans being marched in front of a terrifying red-eyed armed guard covered with a hammer and sickle. The leaflet was produced by the 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet Group on 9 August 1952. The text is:
UNIFICATION AND SLAVERY
The back of the leaflet features two hands in chains and the following text:
UNIFICATION AND SLAVERY
All Koreans dream of a unified nation. The Communists dream too, but they dream of unification through slavery. They would unify the people with guns and death.
Communist puppets would then rule a nation for Russia. They would force Russian culture upon all of Korea. They would put force in place of freedom throughout the land.
The Communist dream of a unified nation is a nightmare for all Koreans. The United Nations dream of a free, peaceful and unified Korea is hope for all Koreans.
This leaflet is identified as Unification and a free Korea in the UN files. It depicts an elder, representing the father of the Korean people. The text is:
One root, One blood, One ethnicity
Because it attempts to show the two Koreas as one nation it could also be translated as One Nation, One Kind of People.
Korea was a very cold place and there were many deaths caused by the cold and many injuries such as frostbite that led to the loss of limbs. Here the United Nations depicts a North Korean soldiers skull in a simple cloth cap that offers no protection against bullets and shrapnel. It is designed to show that another winter of war and death approaches while Communists stall at peace talks. The text is:
Death awaits you
Some other leaflets in for Plan Deadlock are 1220 (Vengeance of the masters) 1229 and 7248 (Armistice).
Plan Divide was designed to split the North Koreans from their Communist government; to split the North Koreans from the Chinese troops fighting alongside them, and to split the Chinese troops from their Communist government. Plan Divide began on 15 January 1953 and was terminated on 30 April 1953. 625,000 copies of this leaflet were prepared by the 1st Loudspeaker and Leaflet Company (1st L&L Company) on 16 January 1953. It depicts Soviet leader Josef Stalin and a hammer and sickle. Some of the text is:
WARRIORS OF THE CHINESE COMMUNIST FORCES
BEHOLD THE MURDEROUS SYMBOL AND CRAFTY FACE OF YOUR BETRAYER!
The back depicts dead Chinese in the snow and some of the following text:
Warriors of the Chinese Communist Forces! Look about you! Many of your comrades are gone, killed in useless attacks. Why?
Because Stalin and the Russian Communists have forced you into this war. Because they care nothing for dead Chinese soldiers
Be careful, soldiers of the IB Corps! Hide yourselves from the sharp eyes of the U.N artillery and naval gunfire.
This leaflet was printed by the Psychological Warfare Division, G3 (Operations), 8th U.S. Army on 23 January 1953. The theme was: Chinese superiority complex. It was designed to foster dissension between the North Korean and Chinese forces by suggesting that the Chinese held the Korean in contempt. It depicts Chinese soldiers in a derisive attitude toward the North Korean soldiers and civilians. There is a long text message on the back so I will just translate a few lines. The text on the front is:
THE CHINESE FORCES CONSIDER THE KOREAN PEOPLE TO BE AN INFERIOR RACE!
The text on the back says in part:
North Korean Soldiers:
Do you know that the Chinese forces secretly despise the North Korean people and hold them in contempt? The Chinese forces look down upon you because there are 100 times as many Chinese as there are North Koreans. Also because China is much bigger Think! Have the Chinese forgotten your 5000 years of civilization and history? Your ancestors defeated seven invasions of Korea in ancient time. Is this not true? Soldiers! Do you know that the Chinese forces whisper to each other that you are cowardly and refuse to fight? Even so, they sent you to the difficult eastern front while they have taken the better western front .
This leaflet was printed by the Psychological Warfare Division, G3 (Operations), 8th U.S. Army on 7 March 1953. The front depicts a courtship scene. To make it culturally correct the scene was drawn by a female Korean artist. It is designed to create dissension between the North Korean Army and government by reminding soldiers that they can no longer be with their loved ones. The theme for this leaflet is: No courtship and love for the Korean Peoples Army. The message is rather short:
Comrades When will you meet your loved ones once again?
I added this leaflet because it depicts what might be considered a pin up for Chinese troops. It was hoped that they would save the picture of the pretty Chinese girl in traditional dress. This leaflet was produced by the Psychological Warfare Division G3 (Operations) EUSAK on 8 March 1953 as part of Plan Divide. The leaflet is designed to stimulate longing for normal human relationships and to create dissension against the government which denies them. The leaflet depicts a photograph of Pretty Chinese woman in a formal silk dress. The front and the back are identical. The text is:
No mans Life is Complete without a Wife and Sons
Some leaflets from Plan Divide are 8394 (Soldiers of the North Korean Army), 8716 (Warriors of the Chinese Communist Forces), 8719 (Desertion ratio Communist Chinese Forces vs. North Korean Peoples Army) and 8727 (No sweethearts for the Chinese Communist Forces).
Plan Dragon used the theme of nostalgia and longing for home during the lunar New Year holiday season of 1952. During the lunar holiday season, leaflets were designed to make soldiers think of home while other leaflets targeted civilians in order to encourage dissatisfaction with their husbands and sons continued military duty. Operations culminated during the lunar New Years holiday. This campaign ran from 19 January 1952 to 27 January 1952.
Leaflet 1143 depicts the hands of freedom-loving North Koreans reaching toward the symbol of the United Nations hoping for peace and freedom. The leaflet contrasts the peaceful, democratic ideals of the United Nations with the cruel dictates of Communism. It states that Communism is the only impediment to a peaceful, united Korea. The text on the front is:
Will the Year of the Dragon Bring Peace?
This leaflet depicts a Korean Turtle ship used during the Imjin War. In that war the Japanese invaded Korea and at first conquered a good part of the country, but gradually, and with the use of its navy, Korea drove the Japanese out. The turtle ship was the fastest and most maneuverable warship in the East Asian theater at that time, powered by two sails and 80 oarsmen taking turns on the ship's 16 oars. Their primary role was to cut deep into the enemy lines; cause havoc with their cannon, and destroy the enemy flagships. This leaflet implies that South Korea will also drive the North Korean invaders out. The leaflet was printed by the 1st Radio and Broadcasting Group on 17 January 1952 as part of Plan Dragon. The text on the front is:
Victory over Communism
Unite to drive out Communist aggression!
Some other leaflets in Plan Dragon are 7121 (Escape to a peaceful New Year), and 7122 (Will the year of the Dragon bring peace? - in Chinese).
Plan Eris, like Plan Divide, was designed to create dissension between the North Korean and Chinese military. This leaflet was prepared for the North Koreans by the 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet Group on 3 September 1951. The asterisk at the end of the code indicates that it was requested by the Eighth U.S. Army in Korea. This is the first leaflet in the Eris series. The official designation is Chinese Communist Forces Borrowing from North Korea. The leaflet is based on intelligence reports that the Chinese often borrow tools and animals from the Koreans and do not return them. The text is:
BEHAVIOR OF THE CHINESE COMMUNIST SOLDIER
Officers, Sergeants and Privates of the North Korean peoples Army,
Do you know that while you are fighting at the front, the Chinese Communists have taken over control of North Korea?
Do you know that the Chinese soldiers are stealing cattle, tools and other valuable articles from your poor helpless families?
Do you know that Korean women, children and old men have no protection against the Chinese Communist robbers?
BEWARE OF YOU REAL ENEMY THE CHINESE COMMUNIST ARMY
Plan Eris, like Plan Divide, was designed to create dissention between the North Koreans and the Chinese. The large leaflet above depicts a North Korean soldier carrying supplies in rugged terrain and a United Nations naval bombardment. The back of the leaflet was left blank to be used as writing paper. It was hoped that this would result in the leaflet being mailed back to North Korea where it might create dissension. The leaflet was prepared by the Psychological Warfare Division of the Eighth U.S. Army, Korea, on 11 August 1952. Some of the text is:
Soldiers of the North Korean Peoples Army,
Do you know why you are forced to be stationed on the eastern front?
The mountainous eastern front occupied by the North Korean Peoples Army is much more difficult that the western front occupied by the Chinese Communist forces. The road network on your part of the front is far worse than that in the Chinese area, thus supplies are a tougher problem for the North Korean Peoples Army .
Furthermore, the eastern front is constantly exposed to UN naval gunfire and has suffered from tremendous casualties .
Other leaflets from Plan Eris are 8322 (Chinese superiority complex). Leaflet 8321 is the 5th Eris leaflet so we know there are at least five.
Plan Eyewash is mentioned in several Korean War books. It was a travelling exhibition, designed by the 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet Group Twelve large PSYOP posters that depicted how leaflets, posters, newspapers and radio were used as part of the PSYWAR plan. Some of the titles are: What is PSYWAR?; PSYWAR Planning; The Birth of a Leaflet; and The Korean Broadcasting system. The first exhibit was 15 May 1952 in Tokyo. In what I assume was an attempt at political correctness, a poster explaining Plan Rat Killer (see below) was labeled Plan Rat Trap.
This leaflet was prepared by the 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet Group in Chinese as part of plan founder. It depicts Dr. Sun Yat Sen and the emblem of the United Nations on the front and is in honor of the anniversary of his death. The text is:
Dr. Sun Yat Sen, the father of the Republic of China
He brought China: Nationalism, Democracy and Livelihood
Long live the spirit of Dr. Sun
The Mountains and Rivers of the Chinese Republic change colors
The back of the leaflet depicts a statue of Sun Yat Sen and the following text in part:
Dr. Sun is the father of the Republic of China. The Chinese adore his three principals. The Communists destroyed Dr. Suns three principals which the people loved and his idea of the dignity of the individual. They have abandoned the Republic and made the Chinese people slaves of Russia. Yet, the Communists deceitfully and hypocritically say they respect Dr. Sun! They are traitors to his principal and to China!
Note: The Change colors statement above is a Chinese expression meaning that the new regime has replaced the old one.
Plan Fraud was designed to convince the target audience that Soviet control of Korea is the aim of the North Korean leaders and that the alleged reforms in China are not real and that the Chinese Communists have deprived people of their individual freedoms. The campaign ran from April 1952 to June 1952. This leaflet depicts a Korean whose mouth is covered and whose paper is being burned by an evil ghost-like creature marked with the Communist hammer and sickle. This leaflet was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group on 8 July 1952. Some of the text is:
COMMUNIST HANDS TAKE YOUR FREEDOM
Communist hands clamp your mouths shut. You cannot speak out against your Communist bosses.
Communist hands chain you to your job. You cannot choose where or how long you must work
Communist hands rob you of every freedom you have ever known and make slaves of you.
ESCAPE THE HANDS THAT KILL FREEDOM
OPPOSE COMMUNISM! RESIST RUSSIA!
This plan Fraud leaflet shows Chinese workers pulling a plow like an ox. Meanwhile, above them, Mao sits comfortably on hundreds of bags marked mi (rice) holding a hammer and sickle. On the back a lone Chinese farmer is depicted standing with his scythe and looking at a barren field picked dry by the Communist bosses. The leaflet is called Chinese reforms and was prepared by the 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet group on 22 April 1952. The text on the front is:
The harsh heavy taxes and forced contributions oppress the Chinese farmers into the 18th level of Hell
Under the tyrannical Communist government farmers plowing the fields become beasts of burden
Note: The 18 levels of Hell is a Buddhist concept. The concept of the eighteen Hells started in the Tang dynasty. Sinners feel pain and agony just like living humans when they are subjected to the tortures of Hell. They cannot die from the torture because when the ordeal is over their bodies will be restored for the torture to be repeated. Some of the tortures are: Mountain of Knives torture; Cauldron torture; Dismemberment torture and Boiling liquid torture.
The image of peasants being forced to haul plows like oxen was also used in the Republic of Chinas elementary school textbooks. It was said to be very effective in inspiring fear among the then mostly peasant school children. Having whipped farming animals for a lifetime they feared the same fate awaited them under Communism.
Birth of leaflet 1195 on the Printing Press
The Leaflets are cut to size for Air-Dropping
The Leaflets are loaded into Propaganda Bombs
British researcher Lee Richards found a number of official U.S. Army photographs showing the development of Plan Fraud leaflet 1195. It is rare to find a sequence like this.
Some other leaflets of Plan Fraud are 1179 (Communist aggression), 1181 (Communist officials feast - Korean), 1183 (Communist reforms), 1185 (Communists deny people freedom), 1187 (The North Korean soldier is forced to fight Soviet Russias War), 1189 (North Korea a Soviet Russian slave state), 1191 (Communism means corruption), 1226 (You are being deceived), 7158 (The decline of China), 7161 (Communist officials feast Chinese), 7167 (Chinese subservience to foreign control), 7173 (More paper reforms), and 7175 (Communist hands kill Chinas freedom).
Preparing the Plan Fraud leaflets for Dissemination
In the official 10 November 1952 Department of Defense photograph above, members of the U.S. 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet Group prepare leaflet number 1179 for dissemination. Notice that the leaflets are being formed into rolls to be placed inside leaflet bombs. This leaflet depicts a North Korean soldier advancing over dead bodies with a hammer and sickle and burning homes in the background. The leaflet mentions Communist aggression and makes six statements to show that the Communists are to blame for the war. It ends:
Divide by hate Conquer by force
Oppose Communism Resist Russia
PLAN GOOD FELLOW
Plan Good Fellow was designed to show the good treatment of Prisoners of War from the front lines until placement in permanent POW camp in South Korea and the educational, vocational and recreational facilities available in the POW camps. The leaflet above has three photographs on the front and three on the back. They depict prisoners of war taking part in educational and vocational training programs. The leaflet was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group on 18 July 1952. Some of the text is:
I have given the United nations permission to send this message to my comrades so you will know about the good treatment I received from the UN. I am safe, well cared for and happy. The UN is even helping me learn a trade I can use when peace comes.
Some of my friends work in the shoe repair shop in our compound, keeping their boots in good condition.
Others are learning to be blacksmiths
Men in our compound have organized a band. They make most of the instruments themselves
So you will know more about what to expect at a UN compound in South Korea, I will write you again about my life here.
This Good fellow leaflet was aimed at the North Koreans as indicated by the lower code number. Like the leaflet above it has three photographs on the front and three on the back. They depict prisoners of war taking part in educational and vocational training programs. The leaflet was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group. The leaflet title is United Nations Comfort. The text on the front of this leaflet is:
My friend and I cannot help but think of you who are suffering under Communist domination, so I will tell you about the life we enjoy under the U.N.
We have plenty of warm clothes.
And, time to read.
My friend and I hope you will soon escape from Communist hardship so you can share the comforts the U.N. gives us!
Some other leaflets in Plan Good Fellow are 1200 (Front lines to POW camp), 1202 (NK Soldiers: I am sending this message to my comrades ) 1203 (Daily life of prisoner of war), 1214 (Good life in Prisoner of War camp), 1215 (Education and Recreation in POW camp), 1216 (The United Nations protects us), 1258 (Fellow Koreans! I want you to know of the good life...), 1291 (U.N. Medical Care), 7179 (POW camp food and facilities), and 7231 (United Nations Comfort Chinese)
Plan Heartache was designed to create nostalgia in the Chinese forces. It was based on the well-known concern of the Chinese peasant soldier for his home and family. This leaflet is entitled The Dream of the Chinese Communist soldier, and depicts a romantic scene where a Chinese soldier is in a boat with a yound woman, and on the back a sad image of the woman crying. The text is taken from an old Chinese Hakka folk song.
I dont have the official UN translation but three translators said that although the message is short, it is written in in literary style that makes it very difficult to read. They compared this propaganda message with a historical text and said that the first two lines were unchanged, but the last two quite different, implying that the chance for love has passed. Note that younger sister below is another term for girl friend. The text on the leaflet is:
The crescent moon shines through the night
The boat bobs by the riverbank
Last night I dreamt I had fun with younger sister
When I awoke I realized the great separation
The original Chinese Hakka text was:
The moon's crescent is hung in mid heaven
The boat is bobbing by the river's bank
Those with intent on sailing should catch the high tide
The girl who wants a lover should do so when still young.
Data sheets from the 1st L&L Company state that 1,500,000 copies of this leaflet were prepared on 14 August 1952. Plan Heartache ended on 15 September 1952.
Eighth U.S. Army Korea, Combat Propaganda Operations adds:
Heartache, launched in the middle of 1952, sought to lower morale and combat effectiveness by increasing the Chinese soldiers anxiety over loved ones at home. Loudspeaker broadcasts featured letters from mom and music from home. The approach was systematic. First programs sought to build up a listening audience by playing news and music. Once the nostalgia had settled in the good treatment and surrender so you can live for your families themes were woven into the broadcasts.
PLAN HOLD UP
Plan Hold-Up was designed to show North Korean civilians that the United Nations purpose in Korea was peace, unification and rehabilitation and that the Communist promise of the good life was false. Plan Hold-Up was originally Plan Deadline until the armistice discussions continued past the original 27 December 1951 deadline. This campaign ran from 28 December 1951 to July 1952. The leaflet depicts North Korean soldiers and civilians marching into the mouth of a personified snake whose body leads back to the Kremlin in Moscow. The leaflet was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group on 28 April 1952 and entitled Communists: Masters of deceit. A companion piece was printed in the Chinese language. The text on the snakes body is Communism and on the banner above North Korean Peoples Government. Some of the text on the back is:
Will your Sacrifices Ever End Under Communism?
Stop! Look around you at your dead and dying. The loss of your sons, your home, your crops is this the good life the Communists promised you?
Your suffering can be stopped if the Communists would allow it. The International Red Cross and the World Health Organization both have offered to help the people of North Korea. The Communists have denied you this aid.
North Korea could be free and independent if the Communists would allow it
Your families and friends can remain alive if the Communists would allow it
THE COMMUNISTS HAVE RUINED YOUR FAMILIES AND SOLD YOUR COUNTRY TO SOVIET RUSSIA!
THE COMMUNISTS ARE MASTERS OF DECEPTION!
This leaflet was designed to show North Korean civilians and soldiers why the Republic of Korea requested help from the United Nations. The text on the front is:
The Korean Story
1. This is the story of the United Nations's efforts to establish a free, united, independent Korea. On June 25th, 1950, Communist armies from the north, without cause and without warning, invaded the Republic of Korea.
2. June 25th, 1950, the United Nations immediately condemns the aggression, calls for a cease-fire order and demands withdrawl of the invaders.
3. The aggressors from the north ignore the United Nations demand for peace.
4. The Republic of Korea immediately resisted the North Korea aggressors.
5. In the meanwhile, President Rhee appealed to the United Nations to send UN forces to Korea in order to repel the Red aggressors.
6. The United Nations forces arrived to repel the Red aggressors in order to restore peace and permit a just solution for Korea.
The text on the back of the leaflet is:
7. The Allies are forced to make a strategic withdrawal to prepare for attacks against the Communists in the early days of the Korean conflict.
8 Unexpectantly, United Nations make a surprise landing at Inchon. United Nations leaders MacArthur and Walker sent in thousands of ships, planes and men. United Nations might pushes the Reds up to the Yalu boundary.
9. Chinese Communists cross the Yalu River into North Korea, joining the NK aggressors and preventing the unification of Korea.
10. United Nations forces led by General Ridgeway immediately and effectively strike back to repel the new Chinese aggressors.
11. Panmujon - The peace talks which began July 10, 1951 at Kaesong were continued at Panmujon. Establishment of a military demarcation line was formerly ratified on November 27th. On February 19, 1952 an "agreement in principle" was reached except for communist insistance of forces repatriation of POWs and two other items.
12. People of Korea, with your assistance the United Natiions will continue to work constructively for a unified Korea and will continue to rehabilitate Korea's people, land and industry.
Some other leaflets in Plan Hold Up are 1154 (Soviet aid to aggression), 1169 (What is the U.N?) and 1172 (Life is best under the United Nations flag) and 7149 (Masters of Deceit).
This leaflet does not exactly fit into the theme of Plan Invader and the text of the data sheet explains that by saying that it supports Plan Invader. There are a series of leaflets depicting the flags of the participants in the Korean War, those starting with a 1 are in Korean and those starting with a 7 are in Chinese. Most of these flag leaflets are part of Plan Mist, but for some reason this one was placed in Plan Invader. The need for the leaflet was the continuation of a long-range education program to familiarize Chinese troops with the various symbols used by the United Nations. The leaflet was printed by the 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet Group in Chinese on 6 June 1952. The text on the back of the leaflet is:
Under the UN flag the free nations of the world joined forced to defend the Korean people against the Communist aggressors
Plan Invader was designed to convince the target audience that the war could have been over long ago except for the Communist aim of worldwide conquest. Plan Invader sought to create resentment and anger towards communist leaders for starting and prolonging a war of aggression against the Korean people. Radio operations directed at Korean civilians and leaflet operations directed against CPVF and KPA troops emphasized that the invasion had been deliberate and premeditated and that the Communists were using the armistice as a breathing spell to reorganize their defeated forces. The campaign ran from 15 June 1952 to 5 July 1952.
The leaflet above depicts three arms labeled Communist China, Russia and North Korea holding flaming torches which are burning the Korean people. The leaflet was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group on 25 June 1952. The data sheet tells us that this is Invasion by the Communists, No. 2 which means there is at least one earlier leaflet in this series. Some of the text is:
EXAMINE THESE FACTS THAT TELL THE TRUTH ABOUT THE KOREAN WAR
You know for a fact that two years ago (25 June 1950) the North Korean Communists ruthlessly attacked the peaceful Republic of Korea.
You know for a fact that the war was nearly over (Mid-November 1950) when the Chinese Communists invaded Korea
You know for a fact that the Communists have constantly blocked efforts to conclude an armistice.
You know for a fact that since the Communists started this war and now realize that they cannot win, its their responsibility to end it now to prevent needless bloodshed.
This leaflet was designed to convince soldiers civilians of North Korea that the war could have been over long ago except for the communists' long range plan for world conquest. The leaflet depicts three comunist leaders who ares gleefully applying the torch of aggression to North Korean soldiers. The back of the leaflet depicts dead North Korean soldiers. The text on the back is:
Examine These Facts That Tell The Truth About the Korean War
You know for a fact that two years ago (25 June 1950) the North Korean Communist ruthlessly attacked the peaceful Republic of Korea.
You know for a fact that the war was nearly over (mid-November 1950). And you know that your soldiers were forced to fight in Korea to prevent the Soviet Russians from losing face since they had nearly lost control of North Korea.
You know for a fact that the United Nations never intended to cross the Yalu. The Chinese Communists were assured of this, so your leaders lied when they said the soldiers fight to defend China.
You know for a fact that Communist aggression in Korea is another part of a long range communist plan for world conquest by force.
You know for a fact that the Communists' two year old war has brought nothing but suffering, misery and death to countless thousands of people.
You know for a fact that the Communists have constantly blocked efforts to conclude an armistice.
You know for a fact that since the Communists started this war and now realize they cannot win, it is their responsibility to end it - Now, to prevent more needless bloodshed!
Some other leaflets in Plan Invader are 0109 (North Korean flag with skull in place of red star), 1175 (Invasion by the Communists - Korean) and 1199 (Examine these facts that tell the truth about the Korean War - Chinese).
Plan Liberator was designed to exploit the seventh anniversary of Korean liberation and tell the target audience that that the USSR did not enter war until Japans defeat was clear; and then Substituted Communist oppression for Japanese rule. The leaflet depicts a North Korean family behind bars with the Communist hammer and sickle symbol above. The leaflet was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group on 24 July 1952. Some of the text is:
On liberation Day the old dream of freedom and the old hope of a unified nation will haunt the air of North Korea like the spirits of neglected dead.
It was not always like this. In August of 1945, the dream was almost a bright reality; the hope lived in all hearts.
Then the Russians, posing as liberators, marched into North Korea and turned deaf ears and a stony face to the dreams of freedom and a unified Korea .
Plan Mist was designed to distract from the Communist observance of May Day. This holiday, also known as International Workers Day, occurs on May 1. It was an important official holiday of the Soviet Union, celebrated with an elaborate parade in the center of the major cities. The biggest celebration was traditionally organized on the Red Square, where the General Secretary of the Communist Party and other party and government leaders stood atop Lenin's Mausoleum and waved to the crowds. This miniature leaflet depicts the Hammer and Sickle on a flag and was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group on 30 April 1952. It bears the following text on the back:
Remember this symbol of slavery and death
Some other leaflets in the Plan Mist campaign are 0105 (United Nations flag), 0106 (Republic of Korea flag), 0107 (North Korean flag) and 0705 (The United Nations defenders of Peace and Justice).
Plan Nutcracker was designed to break the hard-core element within the North Korean Army. Leaflet 8139 was the first in a series of Nutcracker leaflets. It depicts a scroll with text in red. It targeted political directors and commissars within the North Korean Army. The text on the scroll is:
We, soldiers of the North Korean Army, accuse our commanders and political instructors of fighting this war for Russia.
We do not approve of fighting the United Nations forces any longer.
The scroll is signed by several names. Additional text on the back says in part:
Political Commissars and Instructors of the North Korean Army:
Your subordinate soldiers know you as the real enemy.
For your personal gain and prestige you have become a traitor to your comrades .
Plan Patriot was designed to commemorate the 1919 Korean revolt and to show that people in North Korea should revive the spirit of that time and fight Communist slavery. 1 March 1919 was Korean Independence Day. Plan Patriot meant to intensify Korean patriotic feelings along pro-UN and anti-Communist lines by identifying the UN as the champion of Korean unification and independence. Leaflets and broadcasts directed at Korean civilians in North Korean held territory sought to create resentment against the Communists for preventing unification and attempting to supplant Korean traditions, culture, and independence. This campaign ran from 24 February 1952 to 15 March 1952.
The leaflet above depicts a smiling family on the front looking up at the full color Korean flag. The leaflet was prepared by the 1st Radio Broadcasting & Leaflet Group on 18 February 1953 for North Korean civilians and military. The text on the front is:
The Taikuk flag, the flag you missed so much! Long live unification and independence!
Text on the back is in part:
Keep up the March 1st spirit of your patriotic Martyrs!
How much and how long did you suffer the unbearable shame of a people without sovereignty?
Korea was a mother lost in the darkness of a storm night, trying hard to save her child by embracing him tightly.
But today, in liberated Korea, the Communists deny Korean independence and free unification. They sentence North Koreans to a living Hell for their master, Stalin. Under a red flag, not your TAIKUK flag, they force Koreans to kill their brothers. What a pity it is.
This interesting leaflet was called Enforced contributions. It depicts one North Korean Communist soldier holding a peasant upside down and shaking him while a second soldier holds open a sack that catches all the items falling from the peasants pockets; everything he owns. The text on the front is:
Endless Communist "Donations"
This is what the Communists are, who claims to be "for the peasants."
Other leaflets in this series are 1162 (The significance of 1 March 1919), 1165* (Korea: Communist Puppet) and 2501 (Congratulations from the United Nations) showing the flags of all the Allied Nations in full color.
PLAN RAT KILLER
Plan Rat Killer was a campaign to rid South Korea of thousands of Communist guerrillas (usually called bandits) left behind during the North Korean retreat. It ran from December 1951 to March 1952. The Far East Command in Tokyo sent 9,920,000 Rat Killer leaflets to Korea for dissemination over the Guerrillas. There are dozens of leaflets prepared for Korean General Paik Sun-yup who in November 1951 led the anti-guerrilla campaign as commander of Task Force Paik to destroy the left-behind communist guerrillas. There is even an Eddie Deerfield novel called The Psy-Warriors that mentions the Communists, Rat-killer, and the guerrilla attempt to destroy an American propaganda radio station.
Leaflet 8218 was designed by the North Korean Army PSYWAR Section. It was printed by Eighth Army Psychological Warfare Division G-3 (Operations). The front depicts the Republic of Korea flag and text. The back is all text. The propaganda message is in the form of a 17 January 1952 letter to the Partisans:
Come back! Dont you know that your home town and your warm-hearted friends are waiting for you to come back? For what do you suffer such hardship?
If you dont realize the fact and continue the resistance, betraying your peoples expectations, you will be eliminated. You are surrounded by a large number of Republic of Korea soldiers with modern weapons.
How to surrender: As soon as you read this leaflet, come down to the police or Republic of Korea Army with this safe conduct pass which we have dropped. If you dont have a safe conduct pass, just come down at once. We will welcome you even without a safe conduct pass.
We know that there were three phases to Plan Rat Killer, and on 15 January, the third and final phase started with a second attack to clean up the last of the Guerrillas on Mt. Chiri. Police units were on the roads and escape routes below. This leaflet was obviously dropped on the mountain telling the partisans to simply come down the mountain and surrender to the police deployed below.
It is difficult to say what leaflets were part of Plan Rat Killer since the data sheets seldom mention the term. We do know from other sources that leaflet 8371 (Extermination of Communist bandits) and 8377 (Surrender appeal to dissident elements).
Plan Sellout was designed to illustrate the contrast between historic Chinese resistance to invasion and present USSR infiltration. The aim of plan Sell-Out was to show Chinese soldiers that the Chinese Communist regime had sold out Chinas national interests and turned the nation into a satellite of the USSR. Leaflets emphasized four different sub-themes: domination of China was a long standing Russian objective; military concessions made by China gave Russia the power of life and death over the Chinese people; economic concessions had turned China into a puppet to be exploited for Russian benefit; and finally, Chinas subservience to Russia had destroyed Chinese independence. This campaign ran from 28 January 1952 to 23 February 1952.
Leaflet 7129 is entitled Russian Control of China, dated 28 January 1952. It is aimed at the Chinese Army in Korea. It illustrated the contrast between past Chinese resistance to invasion and the current Soviet infiltration of China. The front of the leaflet depicts Chinese defending their country from the Great Wall. The text is:
For centuries the Chinese people have valiantly resisted barbarian invaders from the NORTH...
The back depicts Chinese Communist leaders opening the gates and letting Russians enter. The text is:
But today, Chinese Communist leaders are treasonably opening China to the Russians and Soviet domination! China's chief threat still comes from the barbarian hordes from the north. Chinese soldier. Look to your homeland!
Another leaflet in this series is 1165* (Korea: Communist Puppet).
Plan Slowdown was a series of eleven nostalgic propaganda tapes and special leaflets designed to make enemy soldiers homesick and lonely. There was an earlier Plan Heartache, and Plan Slowdown carried on the theme. The messages were nonpolitical and intended to make enemy soldiers think about home instead of fighting. The leaflet above was prepared by the Psychological Warfare Division of the Eight US Army, Korea. A Chinese family appears on the front. The artwork is very strange and does not have a natural look.
Stephen E. Pease tells us more in his book Psywar - Psychological Warfare in Korea 1950-1953, Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA, 1992:
Operation Slowdown was a leaflet-loudspeaker effort involved a series of eleven tapes of nostalgic music with Korean narration broadcast from voice aircraft and from jeeps, combined with special leaflets. Something similar had been tried earlier in an exercise called Operation Harvest Moon. Its purpose was to make enemy soldiers homesick and lonely. The soldiers were encouraged to slow down and listen to the pleasant music
The text on the front is:
MORE IMPORTANT IS SAVING LIFE FOR THE GOOD OF YOUR HOME
Your family expects you to brave danger, but does not want you to return home dead. How to avoid crippling wounds and death is revealed to you by reading the back of this leaflet.
Text on the back is rhymed and seven characters a line. It is actually a malingering message. Some of the text is:
Be slow of temper and not busy as thing are
Encountered slowly, not tight stretched
Pretend sickness and march slowly, do not
Hear the flower-talk of the political instructor.
Suffer loss of your army fire and go back
For more, misunderstand your superiors orders.
Plan Strike was designed to warn the North Korean people of impending air attacks against communication centers and main supply routes. This leaflet was prepared by the 1st RB&L Group on 7 July 1952. Four cartoons depict the Communists hiding troops, vehicles, supplies and repair facilities in homes and shelters near railway centers. Some of the text is:
Heed this warning
The United Nations Command Air Force must destroy all Communist military supplies and installations, and it knows where they are.
It knows the Chinese Communist and Kim Il Sung have been hiding supplies, repair centers and troops inside your homes and shelters. Aerial photographs continually prove this
If you or your loved ones live in or near these targets, leave immediately. The bombing attacks will start soon. If the Communist will not let you leave, send your families to safety. Warn you friends to do the same.
Flee to safety now Save your lives
The above Plan Strike leaflet was printed by the 1st Radio Broadcasting and Leaflet group coded 1206 and dated 10 July 1952. It depicts an explosion near some railway tracks. To the right of the explosion is:
YOU WERE WARNED!
The back is all text except for the top where a pair of hands is depicted manacled between two hammer and sickles. Some of the text is:
COMMUNIST MILITARY TARGETS DESTROYED
The United Nations Command warned you that targets in this area would be destroyed.
Many of them have been destroyed. Others will continue to be destroyed...
Where is the Communist Air Force? Did the rulers send their airplanes to protect you? Or, is their talk of an air force just "so much wind?"
Here is another warning. Some of the bombs dropped in the raid will not explode immediately. They are set to go off hours and days later.
Do not go near the danger area. You will only risk your life.
The front of this leaflet depicts three B-29 bombers on a raid and the word:
In some ways it is similar to a WWII warning leaflet used by the United States against the Japanese that used a bright red paper and an explosion on the front to catch the attention of the finder. The back of this leaflet is interesting in that it shows four drawn panels each depicting a target and warns the Koreans to stay away from them. The scenes depict an industrial plant; a military supply site; a military vehicle and a Troop billet. Once again, B-29 bombers are shown overhead. This Plane Strike leaflet was printed by the 1st RB & L Group on 4 February 1953 in the Korean language. The text is:
Stay away! Save your life!
To destroy communism these targets must be destroyed.
Save your life! Stay away!
Some other leaflets in Plan Strike are 1205 (You are next) and 8731 (Behold the treachery of the Soviet Russians). A Leaflet for the plan that we have not translated is 1090 which is identified as North Korean civilian bomb warning)
On the subject of Plan Strike I note that Department of the Army Pamphlet 525-7-1 mentions it. The text, originally written by Elliot Harris in The Un-American Weapon, M.W. Wads, New York, 1967 says in part:
Perhaps the most successful aerial PSYWAR effort against North Korean civilian populace was aimed at the most vulnerable of all enemy sore spots the deep-rooted fear of UN bombing power. Weeks before a city was to be hit by a major raid, PSYWAR planes dropped general warning leaflets all over the target area. Civilians were warned that they were going to be bombed heavily because their homes were being used to house military personnel and equipment
This was part of the text of the broadcast beamed to the people of North Korea (three times daily):
PEOPLE OF NORTH KOREA ATTENTION THIS MAY SAVE YOUR LIFE.
Today the UN bombed fifty villages, towns and cities that were military targets These were military targets along highways and railroads. You may be next. Save your lives. Flee to the hills .
Plan United was designed to show the enemy all of the nations that had united under the United Nations banner. In early 1952 a series of 18 leaflets were printed by the 1st RB&L Group to warn the Communists of all the nations allied with the United States and South Korea. The leaflets were requested by the Eighth U.S. Army, Korea, and this is signified by the asterisk at the end of the numerical code. Leaflet 9501* is the second leaflet in the series and featured the French. The leaflet depicts a French and a South Korean officer with arms around each other, and a French officer giving candy to a South Korean child. Some of the text is:
Soldiers of the North Korean Peoples Army
France is another of the many nations fighting Communist aggression here in Korea. Comrades in arms against Communist tyranny.
French officers and Republic of Korea Officers in an expression of mutual respect.
A French officer on leave from the front offers his curious new friend some sweets.
Some of the nations mentioned on other Plan United leaflets are: 6505 (Turkey) and 9504 (Canada).
OTHER NAMED PLANS
There are some other plans that we are aware of but do not have the leaflets to illustrate, of just have black and white photocopies. We will leave those leaflets in this section and move them up when we receive better images. Examples are:
PLAN BLAST was designed to warn the residents of Pyongyang, Chinnampo, Woman and Kanggye of major bombing strikes against fuel and ammunition dumps and railway yards in 1951.
PLAN CONCORD was designed to publicize that United Nations efforts in the face of Communist inflexibility proved the key to bringing about the armistice. In other words, the United Nations would take credit for successful peace talks.
PLAN HARVEST MOON was designed to work on the nostalgia of the enemy troops. It ran from 5 October 1952 to 16 October 1952. During this period over seven hundred loudspeaker broadcasts were made totaling over 200 hours.
PLAN RUPTURE was designed to establish Communist responsibility for the failure of negotiations in the event of a breakdown in the talks
PLAN SEVERANCE, Like Plan Rupture was designed to establish Communist responsibility for the failure of negotiations in the event of a breakdown in the talks.
PLAN SWINDLE - Plan Swindle demonstrated the false promises and hopes offered by the Chinese government. In conjunction with Plan Sellout, Plan Swindle demonstrated the false promises and hopes offered by the Communist Chinese government. Plan Swindle emphasized domestic policy failures enacted by the Chinese government, including land and industrial reforms, and reinforced the notion that the Chinese Communists were subservient to the Soviet Union. This campaign ran from 28 January 1952 to 23 February 1952.
As I said at the start of this article, I am sure there are many more named PSYOP campaigns that I have missed. I encourage readers with more information to write to the author at email@example.com.