DEFOLIATION PSYOP OF VIETNAM

SGM Herb Friedman (Ret.)

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U.S. Aircraft Spraying Herbicide

This short article is not an exposť of herbicides or Agent Orange. There have been a thousand papers and a million words written about that. In this article we will look at some of the psychological operations that were designed to convince the Vietnamese people that these products were absolutely safe for human and animals.

One of the great problems for the Government of Vietnam (GVN) and its allies was that in many cases jungles and heavy plant growth grew near villages, roads and military bases. This allowed the Viet Cong insurgents to gather close to targets in complete secrecy and attack when the odds were the greatest in their favor. The obvious answer to this problem was to defoliate those areas near strategic sites and make it impossible for the enemy to hide in them. Thus, the plan to defoliate large areas of Vietnam came into being. What is interesting about this is that the United States and the GVN needed to convince the local population that the chemicals used to defoliate were no danger. A psychological operation was developed to tell the people that the chemicals were not dangerous and contaminated food and water was safe to ingest. In fact, almost a half-century after the war, it is the defoliants that are remembered for causing more deaths and injury than all the bombs dropped and bullets fired.

The start of Agent Orange is told in an unsigned article called The Chemist that gives the background of U.S. Army Chemical Officer Richard Grimes. The article says in part:

Developed as part of a British and American venture in 1943 to develop a herbicide to destroy enemy crops thus depriving them of their food supply, it was scheduled to be used in 1946 as part of Operation Downfall, the Invasion of Japan.

By 1953, Agent Orange had been assessed at the Bushnell Army Airfield in Florida, British stations in India and Australian, in Tanganyika (Zanzibar) at two locations, and over the Waturi Peninsula in Kenya. Britain used herbicides and defoliants in the Malayan Emergency which ended in 1960. US Secretary of State Dean Rusk advised America’s new President, John F. Kennedy, that the British use of herbicides/defoliants in Malaya had set a precedent for their use in warfare.

Grimes was sent to Fort McClellan, AL. He explained, “We tested chemical warfare systems, and safety, always safety first…Ranch Hand was Agent Orange, plain and simple. The delivery systems included artillery shells, generators pushing the chemical downwind, but the agent was usually delivered from spray tanks on helicopters or airplanes. I remember the time we were aboard a C-123 less than 100 feet from the ground, the back ramp down and the nozzles spraying Agent Orange.” Grimes cautiously defended the use of Agent Orange. “The side effects, of course, turned out to be atrocious, but it also saved a lot of lives. We defoliated areas around old French fortifications because the foliage covered hundreds, if not thousands, of land mines. Also, numerous American outposts bordered on dense jungle. Defoliation opened a field of fire which saved them from being overrun, and of course, denied the enemy concealment.”

Grimes now suffers from neuropathy in his legs and arms, he loses balance and all feeling in his arms and legs so badly it’s difficult for him to go through papers, like money or mail. Lt. Col. Grimes is on 100% disability due to his exposure to Agent Orange.

The early Military history of this project is told in The Air Force and Herbicides in Southeast Asia 1961-1971, William A. Buckingham Jr., Office of Air Force History, 1982:

In 1961, President Diem of South Vietnam asked the United States to conduct aerial herbicide spraying in his country. In August of that year the South Vietnamese Air Force initiated herbicide operations with American help. But Diem’s request launched a policy debate in the White House. On one side were those that viewed herbicides as an effective and efficient means of stripping the Viet Cong of their jungle cover and food. Others, however, doubted the effectiveness of such a tactic and worried that such operations would both alienate friendly Vietnamese and open the United States to charges of barbarism for waging a form of chemical warfare. Both sides agreed upon the propaganda risks of that issue. At last, in November 1961, President Kennedy approved the use of herbicides, but only as a limited experiment requiring South Vietnamese participation and the mission-by-mission approval of the United States Embassy, the Military Assistance Command Vietnam and South Vietnam’s government.

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An Official USAF Photo of the A/A45Y-1 Spray System Mounted in a UC-123K

Author Orr Kelly mentions the spray campaign and the warning leaflets in From a Dark Sky – the Story of U.S. Air Force Special Operations, Presidio Press, Novato, CA, 1996. He says in part:

In November 1961, six C-123 transport planes were quickly modified into spray planes. Three arrived in Vietnam in January 1962. This was the beginning of Project Ranch Hand. Each plane carried a thousand-gallon tank of herbicide. Flying in a four ship formation, the planes were able to defoliate a swath of jungle a fifth of a mile wide and ten miles long in one pass.

Between January 1961 and its last mission on 7 January 1971, Ranch Hand delivered more than 18.85 million gallons of herbicide. C-47s flew ahead of them, dropping leaflets to explain the defoliation program to villagers. On some missions, flying in small U-10 utility planes, the pilots carried powerful loudspeakers that broadcast tape-recorded propaganda messages to the populace.

John Stapleton adds in Agent Orange: the Cleanup Begins:

Agent Orange was sprayed in an operation named Ranch Hand. The motto of the sprayers was “Only you can prevent a forest,” a parody of the Smokey the Bear US Forestry Department's motto. The call sign of the C-123s spraying Agent Orange was “Hades” from the Greek word for Hell or the Underworld.

The USAF mentions the spraying and leaflet drops in Psychological Operations and Civic Action in Special Air Warfare. The report says in part:

Defoliants were also used to eliminate Viet Cong hideouts and, in numerous instances, actually to destroy South Vietnamese crops to prevent their falling into the hands of the Viet Cong. South Vietnamese peasants usually did not distinguish among the various uses of aerial sprays and consequently the psychological act was negative: conclusion and fear produced resentment toward the government and vulnerability to communist propaganda. To allay sortie of this hostility, the military often had to use leaflet drops and other educational programs in conjunction with spraying missions. But since defoliation was often used for different purposes, communist propagandists usually held the advantage.

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A “Ranch Hand” insignia

This patch was probably unofficial and made in-country. At the center is the Chinese word for “purple.” This implies that the patch is early and at the time they were mostly spraying agent purple. Agent purple was chemically similar to Agent Orange, both of them contained herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. Agent Purple had the following composition: 50% n-butyl ester 2,4-D, 30% n-butyl ester 2,4,5-T, and 20% isobutyl ester 2,4,5-T. Notice that right across the center of the lush green jungle at the center of the patch there is a brown stripe. That would be the result of spraying the defoliant. The red and yellow border remind us of the flag of the Republic of Vietnam.

Curiously the Communists were already attacking the defoliants by 1962. As early as 1962 the Viet Cong were producing voluminous amounts of propaganda leaflets. The United States Information Service in Saigon collected over 600 that year alone. They described them in a publication called National Liberation Front Propaganda. Among the major themes were anti-Americanism, anti-Diem, music, poetry, strategic hamlets and black publications, items that seemed to be a political or religious tract but were in fact pro-Viet Cong and anti- Government. None of the items were illustrated, simply briefly described. I did find this leaflet description in the booklet:

This is a single page Vinh Long leaflet attacking the government defoliation campaign. The purpose of spraying, it is charged, is to “destroy the people’s lands and crops, and impoverish them so that they can all be herded into strategic hamlets.”

Between 1962 and 1971, the United States military sprayed nearly 20,000,000 gallons of chemical herbicides and defoliants in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia as part of Operation Ranch Hand. The program's goal was:

1. To defoliate forested and rural land, depriving guerrillas of cover.

2. To induce forced urbanization, destroying the ability of peasants to support themselves in the countryside, and forcing them to move to government-controlled cities, thus depriving the guerrillas of their rural support and food supply.

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Helicopter Spraying Herbicide

We should mention that small scale defoliation experiments using 2-4-D and 2-4-5-T were conducted by the British during the Malayan Emergency in 1951. Areas of jungle close to roadways were cleared using chemical defoliation to help prevent ambushes by Communist terrorists. Much of the U.S. policy (including strategic hamlets) was first tried by the British in Malaya and the United States felt that these policies that had been victorious in Malaya would also work in Vietnam. A secret British Government Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies dated 21 December 1951 says in part:

It is agreed on all hands that the risks of ambush by bandits can be greatly reduced by defoliation of roadside jungle. A certain amount of this is already being done by hand but the process is slow and costly and the vegetation quickly grows again. Chemical defoliation would, it is believed, be much more effective. Experiments on a small scale have been carried out using two recently discovered hormone weed killers (2-4-D and 2-4-5-T) with sodium trichloracetate in various combinations. Tests began on the 17 September 1951, by means of hand sprays, and within ten days the foliage was dead…

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110-gallon defoliant tank on a UH-1B Iroquois Helicopter 20 March 1970
184th Chemical Company - 1st Cavalry Division – Phuoc Vinh – III Corps

Jay Gordon Simpson mentions this program in “Not by Bombs Alone – Lessons from Malaya, JFQ, summer 1999:

Another helicopter role was crop spraying. Food denial became a crucial operation against the guerrillas, who turned to growing crops in the jungle. Helicopters sprayed toxic chemicals on Communist Terrorist cultivation sites. These missions started in 1952, and by the end of the next year 88 sites had been destroyed.

Sergio Miller says further in “Malaya the Myth of Hearts and Minds:”

The British used Agent Orange in Malaya, but for the very British reason of cutting costs…The alternative was employing local labor three times a year to cut the vegetation. British stinginess over this matter in one respect helped to avoid the controversies provoked by the use of Agent Orange in Vietnam. The original intention was to crop spray but even this was deemed too expensive by the protectorate authorities. Eventually someone struck on the idea of simply hosing the jungle from the back of bowser trucks and this is what the British did, in limited areas and to no great effect. This happily amateur effort at chemical warfare undoubtedly saved future British governments from the litigation suffered by post-Vietnam US governments.

The Rhodesians also used defoliants on contested areas in their fight with insurgents who wanted to throw out the Ian Smith ruling government. Instead of the “Agent Orange” used by the Americans, the Rhodesians used HYVAR-X which totally destroyed all vegetation.

In Vietnam, about 6,542 spraying missions were carried out by the USAF. As a result, many of the base crews that loaded the herbicides and air crews that flew the missions later suffered from various diseases, even though they were never actually sprayed. They continually came in contact with the chemicals. By 1971, 12 percent of the total area of South Vietnam had been sprayed with defoliating chemicals. In some areas the chemical concentrations in soil and water were hundreds of times greater than the levels considered “safe” by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. About 28 of the former US military bases in Vietnam where the herbicides were stored and loaded onto airplanes are believed to still have high level of dioxins in the soil, posing a health threat to the surrounding communities.

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The Seventh Air Force In Country Tactical Air Operations Handbook (7 AFP 55-1) mentions Psychological Warfare and Herbicides in Chapter 8. It says in part:

The employment of herbicide to expose the enemy and to deny him food has been recognized as an important weapon in this insurgency war…To better administer this portion of the war effort, the U.S. Army Vietnam and the 7th Air Force have established collocated units which work in unison throughout South Vietnam. In each corps area, an Army Psywar company is responsible for the overall psychological warfare effort in support of the U.S., Free World Military Assistance, and Republic of Vietnam forces. Policy guidelines are developed by the Joint US Public Affairs Office and the MACV Psychological Directorate.

All B-52 in-country strikes are followed within four hours by a Psywar leaflet drop. These missions can be conducted by any of three types of aircraft assigned to Psywar units. The U-10 is capable of dropping 60,000 leaflets; the 0-2B, 200,000; the C-47, one million.

One air commando squadron (US-123 aircraft) is responsible for the aerial defoliation of crops…There are three types of defoliation chemicals now in use in South Vietnam. None of the three types are harmful to animal or human life.

Since this report mentions the C-123 aircraft, we should add that in 2015 it was discovered that these old Vietnam era planes still contained the residue of Agent Orange. An Institute of Medicine Report stated in part:

Between 1972 and 1982, approximately 1,500 to 2,100 U.S. Air Force Reserve personnel trained and worked on C-123 aircraft that previously had been used to spray herbicides, including Agent Orange, during Operation Ranch Hand in the Vietnam War. Samples taken from these aircraft show the presence of AO residues…The AF reservists would have experienced some exposure to chemicals from herbicide residue when working inside C-123s.

In 2016, the Department of Veteran Affairs finally acknowledged that Monsanto’s Agent Orange was responsible for the health ailments of over 2,100 Air Force servicemen. Federal officials agreed to release over $45 million in disability benefits to Air Force active duty personnel and reservists who were exposed to Agent Orange from residue off C-123 aircraft, despite never having been to Vietnam. The admission follows an Institute of Medicine study that concluded that “some C-123 reservists stationed in Ohio, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts had been exposed to Agent Orange residues in the planes and suffered higher risks of health problems as a result.”

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Agent Orange

Agent Orange was the code name for the worst of the defoliants used by the U.S. military. It got its name from the color of the orange-striped 55 gallon drums in which it was shipped. A 50:50 mixture of 2-4-5-T and 2-4-D, it was manufactured for the U.S. Department of Defense primarily by Monsanto Corporation and Dow Chemical. The Communist Vietnam government estimates that because of the herbicide, 400,000 people were killed or maimed, and 500,000 children born with birth defects.

In 1971 the Department of the Army published the manual Tactical Employment of Herbicides. It said in regard to Agent Orange:

ORANGE is a systemic herbicide that defoliates a wide variety of woody and broadleaved herbaceous plants. It affects grasses, bamboos, and similar plants less. Agent ORANGE is absorbed by a plant at the point of application within a few hours, and the chemical is translocated. The components of ORANGE are rapidly decomposed by soil microorganisms and the chemical usually disappears from soils within 1 to 3 months following application. Lateral distribution of the agent due to volatility alone is negligible. ORANGE is low in toxicity to man, fish, and wildlife; but it will cause slight skin irritation and minor inhalation effects.

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U.S. Soldier Sprays Agent Orange without Protective Gear

The US also attacked food crops primarily using Agent Blue starting in 1962. By 1965, about 42 percent of all herbicide spraying was dedicated to food crops. This forced farmers to migrate to the cities where they could be better controlled. The urban population in South Vietnam nearly tripled: from 2.8 million people in 1958, to 8 million by 1971. The Herbicide manual said about agent blue:

This agent is readily absorbed through the skin, and prolonged absorption may cause a distinct garlic odor on the breath. BLUE has a very low toxicity to animals.

Other herbicides were named according to the color of the identification bands painted on the storage drums. From 1962-1964, during the early stages of Operation Ranch Hand the most commonly used herbicides were Pink and Purple. After 1964, the most common herbicides were Orange, White and Blue. By 1970, reports of the toxicity of the dioxin in the herbicides were becoming public and in 1971 the spraying was halted. What is interesting is that the chemical companies that produced the herbicides have never claimed any responsibility or liability, but they established a 180 million dollar fund for veterans who were suffering from the results of the dioxin exposure. That sounds like “guilty” to me.

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North Vietnamese Major Tu Duc Phang after Agent Orange Spraying

Studies show that veterans who served in the South during the war have increased rates of cancer, nerve, digestive, skin and respiratory disorders. Veterans from the south of Vietnam had higher rates of throat cancer, acute/chronic leukemia, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, prostate cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, soft tissue sarcoma and liver cancer. It is interesting to note that after years of stonewalling these problems in their search for a “smoking gun,” the U.S. Veterans Administration now just assumes that veterans who served in Vietnam and have these diseases (and a host more) got them from defoliants and the approval of payment is automatic. One does not need to show proof that he was sprayed, just showing that a soldier was in Vietnam is now considered “presumptive” proof.

In 2016, the Oregon National Guard published a booklet with a listing of what maladies are recognized as being caused by Agent Orange. For decades the Veteran’s Administration refused to see a connection between herbicides and disease. The answer was “there is no smoking gun.” Now with proof of being deployed to Vietnam the diagnoses and treatment is automatic. Here is the preamble and the list of diseases:

Veterans who served in the Republic of Vietnam between 9 January 1962, and 7 May 1975 are presumed to have been exposed to Agent Orange and other herbicides used in support of military operations. If a Vietnam veteran has any of the following conditions, the VA will presume that the condition was caused by exposure to Agent Orange:

AL amyloidosis
Chloracne or other Acneform Disease similar to Chloracne
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
Hodgkin's disease
Multiple Myeloma
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Acute and Subacute Peripheral Neuropathy
Prostate Cancer
Respiratory Cancers
Soft-tissue Sarcoma
Diabetes Mellitus (Type II)
Spina Bifida (for the children of Vietnam Veterans)
B Cell Leukemia’s,such as hairy Cell Leukemia
Parkinson's disease
Ischemic Heart Disease

THE PROPAGANDA

The 6 August 1967 PSYOP Guide prepared by the Office of the Psychological Operations Directorate of the United States Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, mentions defoliation:

The Defoliation Program provides security for lines of communication by removing dense vegetation that could be used to conceal ambush sites, remove jungle cover from enemy base areas and infiltration routes, and provide increased visibility around friendly installations. PSYOP programs can minimize any adverse psychological impact of defoliation and reduce the effect of enemy propaganda by providing the population with timely information. The defoliant used in Vietnam is particularly effective against broadleaf vegetation and is harmless to men and animals.

Similar comments are found in the August 1969 working paper; A Review of the Herbicide Program in South Vietnam.

The herbicide PSYWAR effort which is an important part of the overall program has been accelerated in 1967. Both aerial loudspeakers and leaflets are used to explain necessity of the program to the people, to emphasize the non-toxicity of chemical defoliants to humans and animals, and to gain understanding and support from the civilian population. Procedures to reimburse civilians for inadvertent losses are also provided.

The PSYOP Newsletter of January 1968 lists some official publications that are to be consulted in connection with propaganda mentioning Herbicides:

The following references provide guidance to PSYOP personnel in connection with the use of herbicides and defoliants:

HQ MACV Directive 525-1. 22 November 1967.
JUSPAO Guidance #31. 25 February 1967.
Appendix 7 to Annex H, to Combined Campaign Plan 1968. 11 November 1967

The Military Assistance Command - Vietnam directive basically tells who is responsible for what action, how requests should be received and forwarded, and what reports should be forwarded on a regular basis. It points out that:

MACV exercises command supervision, coordination, liaison, and control of all U.S. armed forces in support of defoliation and chemical crop destruction operations in the Republic of Vietnam.

The Joint United States Public Affairs Office prepared a publication on the subject, JUSPAO Guidance Number 31 – PSYOP Aspects of Defoliation dated 25 May 1967. It said in part:

Enemy propaganda has depicted and continues to depict the aerial and ground spray herbicides used in defoliation in RVN as harmful to humans and livestock. Both overt and whispering campaigns are employed by the VC to spread fear and arouse hatred among the rural population of what is called the poison that destroys the peoples’ livelihood. Even school primers in Viet Cong-controlled areas inculcate this attitude. For example, a captured Viet Cong grammar school text includes among its nursery rhymes: “We children hate Americans who are cruel. They scatter poison to destroy our paddies and vegetables.”

The Guide continues:

The type of chemical spray applied to vegetation in RVN is absolutely harmless to men and animals. It has been used for more than twenty years by advanced agricultural countries without any cases of harm or injury caused to humans or livestock…There is no residual effect on the soil or future vegetation from the herbicide treatment. Re-growth will occur almost immediately and will again impair visibility under normal conditions.

PSYOP personnel should be prepared to counter VC and VC-inspired allegations that herbicides used in the RVN are poisonous and bring harm to humans and animals that come in contact with them. Wherever herbicide operations are undertaken as a part of the tactical mission, PSYOP personnel may produce or generate local area leaflets and other media products giving the reasons for defoliation as a defensive measure to deny the enemy cover and concealment…Our output should make the points that: Defoliants used in Vietnam are non-poisonous; even food and water affected by the spray can be consumed without danger…Defoliation has been conducted in Vietnam, where required, since 1961 without any adverse effect whatever on either civilian or military personnel in the affected area. Nor have domestic animals been harmed by the spray.

Ex-PSYOP Trooper Mervyn Edwin Roberts III, PhD, mentions the American belief in the safety of the sprays in: Let the Dogs Bark: The Psychological War in Vietnam, 1960-1968, forthcoming from the University Press of Kansas, 2018:

JUSPAO issued guidance on defoliation operations. It stressed the use of similar herbicides “in the U.S., Great Britain, the USSR and many other countries employing scientific methods of agriculture,” and that the agents left “no residual effect on the soil or future vegetation from the herbicide treatment.” Per the guidance, “Defoliants used in RVN are non-poisonous; even food and water affected by the spray can be consumed without danger.” It noted the chemicals were used on more than 400,000 acres annually in the United States. At the time this guidance was issued, scientists thought it was true. However, by 1969 evidence of potential problems emerged and the military phased out use of Agent Orange by 1971. The then unknown factor was PCB contamination of the agent introduced during production. In the meantime, the National Liberation Front continued the widespread use of this increasingly credible theme.

The Americans were clearly wrong with their beliefs about the safety of the agents. I would like to think that they were just mistaken and not printing what they knew to be a lie.

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Vietnamese Army Political Warfare Training Center Patch

Many of the leaflets that we will depict here are found in the Leaflet Catalog Psywar Training booklet produced by the Vietnamese Army Political Warfare Training Center. The Vietnamese had their own PSYOP units just as the Americans did. They worked closely together. For instance, The Vietnamese 10th Political Warfare (POLWAR) Battalion worked in I Corps with the U.S. 7th Psychological Operations Battalion. They shared the same compound in Da Nang and their printing facilities were integrated. Each PSYWAR Company contained five Civic Action teams, one intelligence team, and one indoctrination team. The first priority of the POLWAR Battalion was command information; informing and indoctrinating friendly military forces. The second priority was winning over the civilian population, and the third was PSYOP efforts aimed at the enemy.

A group of Nationalist Chinese PSYOP specialists initiated POLWAR courses to Vietnamese officers in 1960. In 1964, the South Vietnamese POLWAR program was launched and directed by Chinese advisers in association with the new “POLWAR Division, US Military Assistance Command, Vietnam.”

Credibilis, the 4th PSYOP Group monthly Journal said about the Vietnamese POLWAR units:

There is one POLWAR Battalion assigned to each of the Corps Tactical Zones. The 10th Battalion is in I Corps at Da Nang. The 20th Battalion is in II Corps at Pleiku, the 30th Battalion in in III Corps at Bien Hoa, the 40th Battalion in in IV Corps at Can Tho and the 50th Battalion is in Saigon.

The booklet is a bit odd in that the first 58 pages depict early American Joint U.S. Public Affairs Office (JUSPAO) leaflets from SP-38 to SP-73. The remaining 62 pages depict leaflets produced by the Vietnamese. The book gives examples of leaflets considered valuable and effective so that new PSYOP troops can use the images and the text when writing their own leaflets. My copy contains a note from Lieutenant Colonel Eldon R. Davis, Chief of Psywar, dated 11 May 1964 that says:

Attached are documents ordered from U. S. Army Broadcasting and Visual Activity, Pacific, (USABVAPAC) and designed here. The catalog is a collection of leaflets found effective to assist the leaflet writers in the field with future copy.

Note: USABVAPAC was disbanded 20 October 1965 and reorganized at the 7th PSYOP Group.

I suspect that the subject of defoliation and the loss of crops and farm animals were considered so delicate and sensitive that the Vietnamese were tasked with writing and disseminating the early leaflets on the subject. Later, those leaflets were placed in the training booklet and sent to other Vietnamese and American units to help them in the wording and discussion of the theme in their own leaflets.

The United States seems to have gone to some pains to make the defoliation seem a Vietnamese project. Although for the most part the aircraft and chemicals were American, MACV Directive 525-1 states that the use of herbicides for defoliation and crop destruction was primarily an operation of the government of South Vietnam, supported by U.S. assets and expertise. All requests for fixed-wing aircraft defoliation and for fixed-wing, helicopter, and ground spray crop destruction originated at the Vietnamese district or province level. These requests were processed through ARVN division and corps tactical zones to the joint General Staff of the Republic of Vietnam armed forces. Simultaneously, U.S. commanders and advisers involved in the project were submitting their views through channels to MACV's J-3 (Operations). The US approval process involved representatives from MACV's J-3, J-2 (Intelligence), and Psychological Operations section and from Operation RANCH HAND, Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support (CORDS), U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), Joint U.S. Public Affairs Office (JUSPAO), and the American Embassy.

If approved, the joint General Staff was notified, and a coordination meeting was held in the capital of the province concerned. The province chief who sponsored the meeting was joined by the U.S. province and corps advisers, MACV's Chemical Operations Division action officer, joint General Staff representatives, and RANCH HAND personnel. The Joint General Staff then published an operation order for the project and established target priorities. They requested that U.S. support be provided on order. Details of the co-ordination of U.S. support were provided by the Chemical Operations Division to the commander of the Seventh Air Force and to the 12th Special Operations Squadron. I should mention that some of the US aircraft had removable insignia.

A classified “secret” 1965 document from General Westmoreland to General Wheeler in Washington D.C. mentions the program and the problems. It says in part:

We are under no restrictions from Washington with respect to defoliants or herbicides.

<>We now have seven spray aircraft in country. Our emphasis has been on crop destruction in as much as we have considered this to be the most productive in the long run. However, we have undertaken defoliation operations in critical areas on a number of occasions…The fact is that we do not have the capability to defoliate by spray aircraft all of the areas which might be desirable in view of the priorities which we have set ourselves…There are 500 to 1000 tactical locations in South Vietnam on which the jungle constantly encroaches which are cleared by hand or by hand spray for this is the nature of the problem faced in this part of the world.

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USAF C-123

Walter J. Boyne discusses the clandestine portion of the operations in “Ranch Hand,” Air Force Magazine, August 2000:

The sensitivity of herbicidal warfare became apparent. Despite urgent pleas from the field, officials debated at length whether the C-123s should be disguised with South Vietnamese insignia and flown by USAF crews in civilian clothes. As the origin of the aircraft could not be denied, this idea was abandoned.

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An Official USAF Photo of a Vietnamese Officer and U.S. Crew Member Operating the Herbicide Pump on a C-123

According to authors Stellman, Christian, Weber and Tomasallo writing an article entitled “The extent and patterns of usage of Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam,” Nature, 17 April 2003, the idea was not abandoned.

US policy emphasized that its forces were assisting the RVN in the herbicide program. C-123 aircraft carried out the missions camouflaged and equipped with removable identification insignias. Crop destruction aircraft bore South Vietnamese markings and were accompanied by a Vietnamese crew member under a State Department/Department of Defense concept known as “Farmgate.” Flight crew wore civilian clothing.

So, although the chemicals were made by American companies and dropped by American aircraft, there seems to be a “deniability” built into this operation. I found very few American leaflets that mention defoliation although they clearly exist. For instance, U.S. Army FM 33-1 Psychological operations – U.S. Army Doctrine, June 1968, admits that there are propaganda messages that promote defoliation:

Populace and Resources Control. Populace and resources control operations often are unpopular because they usually consist of restrictions imposed upon the local populace. PSYOP exploits the positive gains realized through populace and resources control measures…These PSYOP Promote defoliation operations which are employed to clear areas for observation, crop production, and fields of fire.

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Leaflet SP-744

The earliest U.S. defoliation leaflet seems to be this Joint U.S. Public Affairs Office (JUSPAO) leaflet (identified by the “SP” in the code which indicated “Special project”). This leaflet depicts small aircraft spraying herbicide over Vietnam to rid the area of Viet Cong hiding places. The back is all text. The text on the front is:

DEFOLIATION

The government destroys Viet Cong hiding places in order to protect the people's food supplies.

Another government effort to restore peace to our country.

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Leaflet 2507

This leaflet depicts a squad of Viet Cong well hidden among lush jungle foliage at the top; and below the same Viet Cong being strafed by American aircraft as they run through trees barren of leaves. The message is very clear; we will take away your hiding places and kill you. JUSPAO leaflet 2507 was the standard 3 x 6-inches in size and prepared for use after herbicidal operations designed to destroy tactical cover in contested areas; addressed to the enemy in those areas. The text above the two pictures on the front is:

BEFORE THE SPRAY YOU HAD CONCEALMENT

AFTER THE SPRAY YOU ARE EXPOSED TO THE MIGHT OF THE GOVERNMENT

The text on the back is:

To the enemies of the Republic of Vietnam seeking safety in the gloom of the forests: Leaf-killing chemicals have been sprayed in this area, so your cover will soon disappear. You have used these forests for cover in ambushes, for your camps and supplies, and to hide during the days so that you can come out at night and intimidate or harm the friends of the Government.

But now the leaves will fall and before they grow back on the trees, you will be exposed and forced to fight for your lives or flee deeper into the forests. But wherever you flee, you will be exposed to fight again and again

THERE ARE THREE CHOICES LEFT TO YOU. YOU MAY RETURN TO THE GOVERNMENT AS A HOI CHANH, OR YOU MAY SURRENDER AS A PRISONER OF WAR, OR YOU MAY DIE IN BATTLE.

And when the leaves of the forest grow on the trees again, they will hide forever your unknown grave…

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Leaflet 8A-702-70

This colorful leaflet depicts a USAF C-130 Hercules aircraft spraying insecticide. The code tells us that it was the 702nd leaflet produced by the U.S. Army 8th PSYOP Battalion in 1970. The 8th was headquartered in Nha Trang and supported a dozen combat units including the 173rd Airborne Brigade. According to 4th PSYOP Group records, by April 1970 the Battalion had printed 32,115,000 leaflets on hundreds of different themes. Many of their leaflets were dropped by the USAF 9th Air Commando Squadron. Above the C-130 on the front of this leaflet is the comforting text:

Insecticides kill only the insect larvae that destroy crops.

The back is all text and seems to be in response to Communist charges that the spray may be lethal. It says:

People of Binh Dinh!

To kill the insect larvae that destroy your crops, the U.S. 173rd Airborne Brigade sprays insecticide on rice-paddies located in areas of thick jungle that are the home to large numbers of mosquitoes, flies, and insects in order to help improve your harvest and to prevent the spread of disease.

The insecticides will not harm your buffalo, cattle or other livestock. Therefore please respond by helping to dispel the lies and distortions being spread by the communists.

Although I have not seen the actual leaflet, the 7th PSYOP Leaflet Catalog (Da Nang) dated 1 July 1969 lists a 1968 leaflet: “7-487-68 - Explanation of Chemicals.” I assume that this leaflet was on the subject of defoliants.

Stapleton mentions 1969 and points out that four South Vietnamese newspapers printed stories that year with pictures of deformed children of women sprayed with Agent Orange. The South Vietnamese Government rejected their statements and blamed the deformities on venereal disease in the women and President Thieu promptly closed the newspapers down for “Interfering with the war effort.”

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NAM IS CONCERNED…

The United States produced a number of leaflets defending the defoliation program to the Vietnamese people and explaining how much safer they would be once the local flora was dead and gone. We now know what a horror Agent Orange was and that thousands of Americans, and perhaps millions of Vietnamese were harmed by it. The result is still seen today as the children and grandchildren of those who came in contact with the defoliants continue to suffer various medical maladies. This leaflet depicts four cartoons on the front and three on the back. The story starts with young Nam realizing that the Viet Cong hide in thick bushes. He tries to avoid them by going home by boat, but again, Viet Cong in bushes along the canal rob him and kill his cousin. The government then defoliates the land and Nam and his friends live happily ever-after. The text on the front is:

NAM IS CONCERNED ABOUT THE DEFOLIATION CHEMICALS

Nam notices that the Viet Cong usually look for thick bushes to hide in to facilitate their terrorizing and killing acts committed on our countrymen.

Once, on his way to the countryside to visit his mother, Nam and other passengers were plundered by the Viet Cong who jumped out of bushes along the road to stop Nam’s bus.

The following visit, Nam changed his mind and instead of riding in a bus, he went home by boat, hoping that this would be a safer means of travel. But, that time again, he was attacked by Viet Cong who were hidden in the bushes along the canal. Besides seizing a number of goods, the Viet Cong also killed Nam’s cousin on the very spot.

To protect people’s lives and properties, the Government believes that it is necessary to use defoliation chemicals to destroy thick bushes where the Viet Cong hide.

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The text on the back is:

Because of the distorted Viet Cong propaganda, Nam is worried about the defoliation chemicals used by the government.

Dear Friend, what if the defoliation chemicals cause any damage to human beings, animals, land and water?

Hello Nam, how are you? The defoliation chemical is used for the purpose of drying trees and striping off their leaves. It does not harm human beings, animals, land or water at all. As for me, don’t I look strong and healthy? Every day, because of my work, I have to breathe the defoliation chemicals, and as you can see, I am not a sick man.

Your explanation sounds plausible, but what would happen if our crops are damaged?

If by misfortune, your crops are damaged by the defoliation chemicals, the government will indemnify you...

Now, I finally understand and I am no longer concerned about the defoliation chemicals.

From now on, like everyone else, Nam remains calm and will not listen to the distorted Viet Cong propaganda.

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A Second “Nam is Concerned” Leaflet

This leaflet also appears in a slightly changed format with the code “A8V4” on front and back. The front of this small 4 x 5.25-inch leaflet is exactly the same with the four panels. The back has just two panels, and does not depict the hand offering money to the farmers and definitely does not say: “If by misfortune, your crops are damaged by the defoliation chemicals, the government will indemnify you.” Perhaps someone thought about the actual cost of all this defoliation and decided to take the offer of cash for destroyed crops off the table.

An American PSYOP policy statement adds:

PSYOP personnel should be prepared to counter VC and VC-inspired allegations that herbicides in the RVN are poisonous and bring harm to humans and animals that come in contact with them.

Our output should make the point that defoliants used in RVN are non-poisonous; even food and water affected by the spray can be consumed without danger.

Specialist Fifth Class Paul Merrell was stationed in Vietnam from April 1968 until August 1970. He was a member of the 8th PSYOP Battalion of the 4th PSYOP Group trained as an 83F20 offset press operator. During his three tours in Vietnam he worked in both HQ and the field in a number of diverse operations and positions. We talked about the defoliation campaign and he told me:

An unusual mission was occasionally following up "Operation Ranch Hand" missions telling villagers that the defoliants were perfectly safe, and that the Viet Cong were lying to them about health effects because they didn't like the intended result of removing enemy vegetative cover. We dropped leaflets and played a recorded message, as we did with many other missions. The only thing I recall clearly was that on one mission we got a big whiff of the herbicide smell over what was a quickly dying strip of jungle. I wound up years later feeling that I deserved the delayed effects of Agent Orange I still live with because of what turned out to be a lie. I'm currently service-connected for chronic colitis, type II diabetes, ischemic heart disease with damage to my brain's hypothalamus and PTSD.

After my discharge I became a lawyer and was on the board of directors of the National Veterans Task Force on Agent Orange, an umbrella organization for the coalition of groups that eventually succeeded in persuading Congress to mandate treatment and disability compensation for veteran Agent Orange disabilities. My legal career was devoted to suing chemical companies for discharge of toxic pollutants, with a specialty in dioxin cases. I could write a pretty thick book on the history of the herbicides now. What the chemical companies knew about the human health effects of the herbicides in Agent Orange on their own workers many years before its use in Viet Nam is a pretty sordid story. It begins clear back in the 1890s when masses of workers were poisoned by very closely-related compounds.

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Before the use of Defoliation Chemicals…

Another rather crudely drawn leaflet depicts Viet Cong ambushing boats in a narrow canal on one side and boats sailing smoothly on the other. Some of the text on the front is:

BEFORE THE USE OF DEFOLIATION CHEMICALS, WHEN TREES AND BUSHES ALONG THE CANAL GREW WILD

1. The Viet Cong took advantage of the thick bushes to terrorize, to kill and plunder our countrymen

2. Business, transportation, and supplies were stopped or delayed.

3. It was difficult for the Army to control and sweep away the Viet Cong.

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After the use of Defoliation Chemicals…

The text on the back is:

AFTER THE USE OF DEFOLIATION CHEMICALS, WHEN TREES AND BUSHES ALONG THE CANAL HAVE BEEN DEFOLIATED

1. The Viet Cong have nowhere to take shelter and plunder, terrorize or kill our countrymen.

2. Business, transportation, and supplies can continue in security.

3. The Army can easily eliminate the Viet Cong in order to bring security to our relatives and friends.

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The High Voltage Power line…

Another leaflet shows modern power lines on the front. The text is:

The high voltage power line is the reconstruction work of the Government. The purpose is to develop industry and to provide light to rural areas.

The back is all-text and written in both Vietnamese and a local tribal dialect. The text says in part:

The Government is using chemicals to clear lands along the high voltage power line.

Trees will be defoliated and consequently the installation and protection of the power line will be easier.

The chemical is not a poison and does not cause any harm to human or animal health. It doesn’t spoil drinking water or your lands.

This power line will assist our industrial development and raise the living standards of the population.

The Danhim power line is our public property and therefore it is our duty to protect it.

Be calm and be careful of the Viet Cong’s distorting propaganda.

In case this defoliation causes any damage to your crop, you are requested to contact the territorial administration for a damage claim.

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A South Vietnam postage stamp showing the Danhim Hydroelectric Station

Note: In 1964 Vietnam prepared a postage stamp commemorating the power station and Danhim so it is apparent why the high voltage line was built there. The defoliation is mentioned in a 30 July 1963 letter from the American Embassy in Saigon to the State Department.

One additional defoliation operation, Danhim power line, was completed on July 27. Approval for three additional defoliation (including defoliation of road and road right of way Zone D) and two crop destruction operations has been requested by the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces.

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Dear Countrymen – Code 235

An all-text leaflet says in part:

Dear Countrymen

Up to now, the Viet Cong often took advantage of the bushes to hide themselves in order to ambush and attack buses, or to organize murders and terrorize people. In some localities they even mine the roads killing many innocent countrymen.

To guarantee security to the people, today the Government is using some special chemicals to defoliate thick trees and bushes, where the Viet Cong used to take shelter to attack buses, to mine roads and to murder good people.

This chemical dries out trees and bushes in the areas sprayed only, and will not cause any damage to the people or animals. Even if this chemical sticks to your body or is mixed with your food and drink, your life will not be endangered.

In modern countries of the world, this defoliation chemical is commonly used in large areas covered by thick trees and grass.

When roads and thick bushes are cleared, thanks to the defoliation chemical, the Viet Cong can no longer take shelter to carry out their sabotage work and attack buses like before. Then with convenient and easy means of communication, our countrymen’s business will be more prosperous. Their lives and property will be protected. Later, they could exploit and cultivate those former wild areas to earn more income for their families.

Dear Countrymen,

Do not listen to the Viet Cong distorting propaganda. Continue to combine our efforts with the authorities and the Army in the destruction of Communists.

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Dear Countrymen…

Another all-text leaflet says on the front:

Dear Countrymen,

The Viet Cong gangs used to hide in bush areas to plunder your property and rice, to destroy our villages and murder our people

As a consequence the government has decided to use chemicals to undertake the defoliation to uncover their masks.

Be calm before the distorting propaganda of the Viet Cong because the chemicals are not poison and never harm the lives of humans or cattle.

The message on the back is:

Dear Countrymen,

Remain calm! The Government and Army are using chemicals to clear land in order to protect our people’s lives and property.

Be calm before the distorted and slanderous propaganda of the Viet Cong.

The effect of the chemicals is to defoliate trees and clear the bushy areas so they will no longer offer good hideouts for the Viet Cong to hijack and terrorize you. These chemicals do not harm the lives of humans or cattle.

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Dear Countrymen! – Code A 3 M 17

A third all-text leaflet has a similar message:

Dear Countrymen!

For a long time the Viet Cong used to hide behind the thick bushes of both sides of the rail roads to spring the mines, attack the trains and pillage travelers. Due to this, the Government has decided to use defoliation chemicals to destroy all the bushes.

The defoliation chemical is not a poison. The defoliation chemical is used to fade the trees and cause the leaves to drop. It does not provoke any injury to man, animals or the drinking water of the population.

Countrymen – don’t lose your temper; don’t listen to the Viet Cong propaganda distorting the truth.

In case of the defoliation chemical causes damage to your crops, you must contact the local administration and ask for indemnification.

The Viet Cong seem to have not feared the herbicides. I found a report of the 1967 interrogation of North Vietnamese Army Company commander Nguyen Luu Thanh. He stated that he always received a one-hour warning before any aircraft were sent to his area on defoliation missions. This indicates that their intelligence or spies among the Vietnamese officers were very good. The VC soldiers covered their eyes with a nylon cloth. They breathed through a canvas or gauze cloth impregnated with chemicals and charcoal. Thanh said that these protective items were completely effective and men using them suffered no ill-effects. The VC seemed to have no fear of the defoliation chemicals. Of course, it should be pointed out that this interview occurred in 1967 and although Thanh thought he was fully protected, many of the symptoms of Agent Orange and other defoliant poisons would not show up for another 10 or 20 years.

According to the Air University Review, January-February 1970 it was not quite so easy:

The enemy has testified to the effectiveness of Ranch Hand operations. A Viet Cong prisoner of war observed that after a base area had been sprayed the camp would be moved. Each man would pick up his hammock and backpack and walk about three hours to a new camp site. Another POW stated that defoliated areas hampered the Viet Cong in moving and stationing troops. These areas had to be avoided for nearly a year before they could be reused.

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Stop Spraying Noxious Chemicals…

This enemy South Vietnam National Front for Liberation leaflet mentions “noxious chemicals.” Now to be honest, I don’t think that in this case they are talking about chemicals like dioxin. More likely, they mean the various irritants like tear gas (CS) or CR gas (dibenzoxazepine), an incapacitating agent that was often sprayed down the Viet Cong spider holes to drive the guerrillas out into the open. It has been reported that thousands of tons of CR gas were used by the U.S. forces in Vietnam to bring Viet Cong into the open. It was also used by the North Vietnamese forces in some battles like Hue in 1968 or during the Easter Offensive in 1972. Still, the leaflet mentions it in two places. At the start of the leaflet they specify “suffocating gas” and this would clearly seem to be an irritant, down below they say “noxious chemicals” and this could in fact be herbicides and Agent Orange.

Many Communist leaflets attacked the spraying program. Another leaflet with the title “Why and for Whom are you Ten Thousand Miles from Home?” was found by a member of the U.S. Army’s 25th Infantry Division in 1968 and says in part:

Nobody could believe that the USA, such a big and strong and prosperous country, is defending justice and freedom with the use of toxic chemicals, B-52s to devastate villages and land, to massacre the peace-loving people of Vietnam.

The Viet Cong did discover a way to make some money out of the defoliation program. They told the farmers in some locations that the spraying caused sickness and the spitting of blood if it was inhaled. They then sold nylon face masks to the farmers for 15 to 20 piasters, just like a good American capitalist.

Although I cannot swear to the accuracy of the numbers, the website Dioxinvn.com mentions the chemicals dropped on the Vietnamese people. One article says:

During the Vietnam War, the United States army dropped a lethal dioxin called “Agent Orange” on 3,800 Vietnamese villages. The American troop’s goal was to defoliate the land to expose the position of the Vietnamese guerrilla fighters and destroy their food supply. An estimated six pounds per person of Agent Orange was dropped over entire village areas. Today, the third generation of Vietnamese suffer the ghastly legacy left by the Americans. Thousands suffer from diseases caused by exposure to dioxin and more than a dozen regions around the country remain contaminated with hazardous levels of Agent Orange.

Another writer adds:

Between 1962 and 1971, at airports and American operations centers throughout South Vietnam, the U.S. military stored, mixed, handled and loaded onto airplanes more than 20 million gallons of herbicide. The spraying campaign ravaged 5 million acres of jungle and forest, and destroyed crops on another 500,000. Various chemical companies, including Dow, Monsanto, Diamond Shamrock, Occidental and Hercules, supplied the herbicides. Early on, U.S. planes dropped pamphlets written in Vietnamese, assuring farmers that the chemicals were harmless to humans and animals.

The Vietnamese government pays monthly subsidies amounting to $50 million a year to victims who are ill or born with birth defects as a result of the herbicide, according to the association for victims. The group says dioxin has continued to cause birth defects in children a third generation removed from the actual spraying.

John Stapleton adds:

Dioxin is regarded as one of the most toxic, if not the single most toxic of all the compounds known to have been synthesized by man. It is dangerous at even 10 parts per trillion or more. It is tested for in parts per quadrillion…In total, some 20,000,000 gallons of defoliant were sprayed from some 20,000 sorties from January 1962 to February 1971...The Vietnamese Red Cross estimated that three million of their countrymen are suffering from the impacts of agent orange.

Loudspeaker tapes were prepared that were almost identical to the messages on the propaganda leaflets. One said in part:

Dear Citizens,

The Viet Cong takes advantage of dense and lush terrain and its thick growth to place mortars and bombs to kill honest people and infiltrate provincial capitals to conduct barbarous actions against innocent people.

The Government of Vietnam sees that it is necessary to spray chemicals to make the leaves fall and so destroy the jungle and thick leaves to prevent the enemy from using them as hiding places. Set your mind at ease. These chemicals do not harm your health or lives.

In War of Ideas, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1981, author Robert W. Chandler adds:

Such explanations probably fell on deaf ears, since the populations’ doubt was based more on emotion than on reason. Some illnesses were reported a result of the herbicides, but Americans diagnosed these symptoms as associated with hysteria and suggestive in origin.

Note: About two decades later, military doctors used exactly the same argument in their fight against “Gulf War Syndrome” in American soldiers returning from Kuwait and Iraq. They could not find a “smoking gun” and therefore decided that no disease existed. Because of the experience of the Vietnam War, the government was convinced much more quickly that a disease did exist and needed to be treated.

Chandler continues:

The National Liberation Front enjoyed substantial success fanning fear and indignation over the defoliation undertaking. Overt and whisper campaigns were common alleging the herbicides were harmful to people and livestock.

When I asked my Australian friend Sergeant Derrill DeHeer, who was a member of the Australian 1st Psychological Operations Unit if he had been involved in any leafleting or operations that mentioned herbicides he told me:

No we didn’t do any leaflets about Agent Orange. When I was around the villages they talked about Agent Orange on their crops from information given to them by the Viet Cong; however 1969 was a drought year and that was why the crop harvest was slightly lower than other years. However, it’s hard to convince the farmers about what has caused bad crops once an idea has been planted in their head by the enemy.

The MACV booklet Evaluation of Herbicide Operations in the Republic of Vietnam (September 1962 – September 1963) adds in part:

Thousands of chemical spray leaflets were disseminated in target operations…From the beginning of the operational phase of the Republic of Vietnam defoliation program, psychological operations support has been a required part of every Vietnamese armed forces request. Difficulties have been encountered in inculcating Vietnamese armed force planners with the U.S. viewpoint that this is a vital part of ach herbicide operation…In planning, the U.S. requirement for PSYOP has been stylized consistently to the demand for leaflets and loudspeaker broadcasts with supplementary ground PSYOP teams.

There is evidence that the Viet Cong avoid defoliated areas: the greater visibility by air and ground increases their visibility; their own propaganda about its poisonous effects may have a “boomerang” effect on Viet Cong personnel…Captured Viet Cong documents indicate instructions to personnel for defense against chemical attack…

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Vietnam Herbicide Map

This ends the technical part of this article. We have depicted the leaflets and told the story. I wanted to add a personal and human touch so I asked a few friends to tell me about their problems after being sprayed with herbicides in Vietnam. Most did not want to talk about it. A few did.

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Sergeant Mike Pinto

Sergeant Michael E. Pinto of the 101st Airborne Division served two tours in Vietnam and told me:

I got in-country in 1968. I made Staff Sergeant just before getting wounded in May of 1971, and came out of the Hospital in August of 1971 ending my stay in Vietnam. In 1969, I was in A Company/Headquarters and headquarters Company, 2nd Battalion of the 502nd Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division. Camp Eagle was the base camp.

I can remember the spray coming down like rain, covering everything, running into our eyes and mouth as we moved. We thought nothing of it back then. We were young and thinking only of being killed by bullets, punji sticks, snakes and all the other obvious threats. No one thought they would live to see thirty, let alone go home again. I was more worried about a rot that was festering between my legs and feet at the time. I went on to serve my tours, went back home, and retired from the Army. Today I have type-two Diabetes and I have had three heart attacks with eight stints in my heart with two valves not closing. I have a skin condition that breaks out in bumps all related to Agent Orange. Plus, they just removed a cancer tumor out of my bladder and one out of my rear both caused by Agent Orange. A nice reminder of my military service back then so long ago, and how long it took for the U.S. government to realize and admit what a danger Agent Orange was.

Captain Ed St. Clair served as a Senior Engineer Advisor in the Military Assistance Command - Vietnam, 21st Infantry Division, IV Corps, in Bac Lieu, Ca Mau, Rach Gia, Can Tho, Vinh Quoi, and Soc Trang during the years 1968-1969. He told me:

The area immediately southwest of the Soc Trang Army Air Field was sprayed during 1968. I have had continuous medical problems since I returned home from Vietnam. Some of the more dangerous one that the Veteran’s Administration attributes to exposure to Agent Orange are: Glaucoma; Cataracts; Heart Attack; High Blood Pressure; Diabetes and Neuropathy (disorder that occurs when nerves of the peripheral nervous system, the part of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord, are damaged). In addition, my son suffers from Sotos Syndrome (a rare genetic disorder characterized by excessive physical growth during the first few years of life), and there is some reason to believe this is also attributed to my exposure to Agent Orange.

A former Marine told me that he served in Vietnam from 1969 to 1971. He was a Combined Action Program (CAP) Marine that lived in the villages with the Vietnamese people. He has suffered from Agent Orange contamination since his return to the United States. He told me:

The worst medical problem was jaw cancer which required 150 to 180 stitches and clamps to restore my mouth, neck, lymph nodes and jawbones. In addition, I suffer from plaque psoriasis (the skin is red and covered with silvery scales and is inflamed) and chloracne (acne-like eruption of blackheads, cysts, and pustules) on my face, elbows, knees and feet. I feel that I am luckier than a lot of other vets who have it much worse.

Another Marine veteran added:

I was diagnosed with type II diabetes and was granted a 30% VA benefit. It is a presumptive disease associated with exposure. My case is moderate and under control with oral medication and a little diet diligence. By the way the big news in type II treatment nowadays is that a gastric bypass can reverse the disease and return you to normal blood sugar levels in a matter of just a few days to a couple weeks but again that is a drastic step and if you are not overweight enough to qualify otherwise it has not been approved just to treat the type II diabetes. Probably 10 years from now they will find out why the surgery works and be able to duplicate the results with medication and a lot of people will be spared dealing with it.

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Sergeant Don Thompson, Lima Site 36, Laos

Former USAF Sergeant Don Thompson who was stationed in Laos during the war told me:

My type II diabetes isn't under control. I am taking the maximum dose of Metformin and am walking a mile a day now. I watch my diet and still my fasting glucose level is over 150. It went uncontrolled when I quit smoking and gained 60 pounds in 3 months. I have lost 20 of those 60 pounds. Then I had a mini-stroke that killed my left ear. They put me on 80 milligrams a day of Prednisone and that really messed up my sugars. I'm off that now but my sugars haven't come down yet. Now the ear, nose and throat guy says that the MRI for the tumor in my brain didn't find the tumor where they thought it was but that they saw something else and I have to have another MRI. Getting old scares the shit out of me.

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Captain Jim T. Dean Jr.

Captain Jim T. Dean Jr. died 23 March 2016 due to complications from his exposure to Agent Orange. Jim arrived in Vietnam in 1968 just in time for the TET offensive. As a Field Artillery Forward Observer he travelled through III Corps and War Zone D, “the Iron Triangle.” He was in some of the heaviest herbicide sprayed areas. He spent 19 months in Vietnam. Jim suffered from rashes for several years. They came and went at will. Then basal cell skin cancers appeared. They eventually turned into squamous cell skin cancers that were removed leaving deep scars on his arm and neck. He also suffered from deep cysts, some of which had to be removed by surgery. His blood sugar at the time he was diagnosed was 800 (normal is 80-120). Oddly, he never considered his Vietnam tour as the cause of these problems.

In 2010, Jim told his wife that His urine was stained with blood. He saw a doctor that same day, was referred to specialists and was told that he had Stage Four bladder cancer with an estimated one year to live. He went through a nine and one-half hour surgery to remove his bladder, prostate, and lymph nodes from his groin to his navel and to prepare an ostomy bag to hold his urine. The surgery was partially successful and Jim lived 5 years and 8 months after that operation. He constantly suffered from painful neuropathy in both legs. He died a terrible death with atrial fibrillation with a resting heart rate of up to 160 beats per minute, gasping for air and totally exhausted. His wife shared his medical problems. Over the years of Jim’s illness his wife Carla had four miscarriages; the last one causing severe hemorrhaging that almost killed her.

I could have filled this article with Agent Orange horror stories. I have added just a few from friends who were willing to talk about their medical history.

It does appear that the United States is accepting some responsibility for the spraying of defoliants on Vietnam. In August, 2012, the British Broadcasting Corporation said:

The US has begun a project to help clean up Agent Orange contamination at one area in Vietnam - the first such move since the war ended in 1975. The work is taking place at the airport in the central city of Danang. The US sprayed millions of gallons of the toxic defoliant over jungle areas to destroy enemy cover. Vietnam says several million people have been affected by Agent Orange, including 150,000 children born with severe birth defects.

The US government is providing $41 million dollars to the clean-up project, which is being carried out by two American companies in co-operation with the Vietnamese defense ministry. The US has in the past helped fund some social services in Vietnam, but this is its first direct involvement in clean-up work.

Stapleton agrees and says that high levels of dioxin contamination were found at Bien Hoa and Da Nang Air bases. Da Nang was one of the three worst spots in Vietnam. It was where American soldiers decanted, mixed and reloaded Agent Orange. In fact there were a large number of former US bases that are contaminated and 25 to 27 further locations are on the list to be assessed.

Some friends from my old group have started an “Agent Orange Awareness” organization. They point out that three and a half decades after Vietnam some 2.6 million veterans are thought to have medical problems caused by defoliants such as Agent Orange. In addition, their children and grandchildren are sometimes affected. Although for many years the veteran’s Administration either refused to recognize many diseases as agent-orange connected, they now have a list of “presumptive diseases.” That means that if you were in Vietnam and suffer from one of the following, you automatically receive benefits without the requirement for hundreds of pages of proof. It took a while, but the VA eventually woke up and smelled the roses. Some of the 43 presumptive diseases are: AL Amyloidoses; Acute and Sub-acute Peripheral Neuropathy; About a dozen different Sarcomas; Adult Fibrosarcoma; B-Cell Leukemias; Chloracne; Diabetis Mellitus Type II; Hodgkin’s Disease; Ischemic Heart Disease; Malignant Granular Cell Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma; Parkinson's Disease; Prostate Cancer and Respiratory Cancer. The most awful thing about this list is that it is continually growing as more diseases are found to be a direct result of exposure to Agent Orange.

This ends our short look at the propaganda of the defoliation program in Vietnam. Readers with comments or questions are encouraged to write the author at sgmbert@hotmail.com.